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Home » MBA Sample Papers » GMAT Sample Papers » GMAT Sample Paper(4)

GMAT Sample Paper(4)

Expert Suggestions on Preparation for Computer Based CAT-09

1
GMAT SENTENCE CORRECTION SAMPLE QUESTIONS
Instruction: This file contains 268 sample questions on GMAT Sentence Correction and
explanations for 28 of them. For answers with complete explanations to other 240
questions, please order the Complete GMAT Prep Course which includes Verbal Study
Guide, Essay Prep Course, and Math Review.
1. The Wallerstein study indicates that even after a decade young men and women still
experience some of the effects of a divorce occurring when a child.
(A) occurring when a child
(B) occurring when children
(C) that occurred when a child
(D) that occurred when they were children
(E) that has occurred as each was a child
Answer with explanation:
Choice D is best. The phrasing a divorce that occurred when they were children correctly
uses the relative clause that occurred to modify a divorce and includes a pronoun and verb
(they were) that refer unambiguously to their antecedent, men and women. Choice A
incorrectly introduces the when... phrase with occurring, thus illogically making divorce the
grammatical referent of when a child; furthermore, the singular child does not agree with the
plural men and women. B replaces child with children but otherwise fails to correct A's errors
of structure and logic, and C corrects only the error created by occurring. Choice E includes
an incorrect verb tense (has occurred) and wrongly replaces when with as. Also, each was
does not properly refer to men and women.
2. Since 1981, when the farm depression began, the number of acres overseen by
professional farm-management companies have grown from 48 million to nearly 59
million, an area that is about Colorado's size.
(A) have grown from 48 million to nearly 59 million, an area that is about Colorado's
size
(B) have grown from 48 million to nearly 59 million, about the size of Colorado
(C) has grown from 48 million to nearly 59 million, an area about the size of Colorado
(D) has grown from 48 million up to nearly 59 million, an area about the size of
Colorado's
(E) has grown from 48 million up to nearly 59 million, about Colorado's size
Answer with explanation:
In choice C, the best answer, an area about the size of Colorado clearly describes a rough
equivalence between the area of Colorado and the area overseen by the companies. In A and
B, the plural verb have does not agree with the singular subject number. Choice A is also
wordy, since that is can be deleted without loss of clarity. The absence of an area in B and E
impairs clarity: the phrase beginning with about must modify a noun such as area that is
logically equivalent to the number of acres given. In D and E up to is unidiomatic; the correct
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expression is from x to y. In D, the size of Colorado's is unidiomatic, since of Colorado
forms a complete possessive.
3. Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that take on different duties such
as defending the entrance, acting as sentinels and to sound a warning at the approach
of danger, and scouting outside the cave for new food and roosting sites.
(A) acting as sentinels and to sound
(B) acting as sentinels and sounding
(C) to act as sentinels and sound
(D) to act as sentinels and to sound
(E) to act as a sentinel sounding
Answer with explanation:
Because the verb phrases used to describe the bats' duties are governed by the phrase
different duties such as, they should each be expressed in the present participial (or "-ing")
form to parallel defending and scouting. Choices A, C, D, and E all violate parallelism by
employing infinitives (to...) in place of participial phrases. In E the singular sentinel is not
consistent with residents, and the omission of and distorts the meaning of the original. Only B,
the best answer, preserves the sense of the original, uses the correct idiom, and observes the
parallelism required among and within the three main verb phrases.
4. The only way for growers to salvage frozen citrus is to process them quickly into juice
concentrate before they rot when warmer weather returns.
(A) to process them quickly into juice concentrate before they rot when warmer
weather returns
(B) if they are quickly processed into juice concentrate before warmer weather returns
to rot them
(C) for them to be processed quickly into juice concentrate before the fruit rots when
warmer weather returns
(D) if the fruit is quickly processed into juice concentrate before they rot when warmer
weather returns
(E) to have it quickly processed into juice concentrate before warmer weather returns
and rots the fruit
Answer with explanation:
For parallelism, the linking verb is should link two infinitives: The only way to salvage ... is to
process. Choice A begins with an infinitive, but the plural pronouns them and they do not
agree with the singular noun citrus. Choices B, C, and D do not begin with an infinitive, and all
present pronoun errors: the plural pronouns cannot grammatically refer to citrus or fruit, nor
can they refer to farmers without absurdity. The best choice, E, has parallel infinitives and
uses fruit to refer unambiguously to citrus. E also expresses the cause-and-effect
relationship between the return of warmer weather and the rotting of the fruit; A, C, and D
merely describe these events as contemporaneous.
3
5. Carbon-14 dating reveals that the megalithic monuments in Brittany are nearly 2,000
years as old as any of their supposed Mediterranean predecessors.
(A) as old as any of their supposed
(B) older than any of their supposed
(C) as old as their supposed
(D) older than any of their supposedly
(E) as old as their supposedly
Answer with explanation:
Choices A, C, and E do not state the comparison logically. The expression as old as indicates
equality of age, but the sentence indicates that the Brittany monuments predate the
Mediterranean monuments by 2,000 years. In B, the best choice, older than makes this point
of comparison clear. B also correctly uses the adjective supposed, rather than the adverb
supposedly used in D and E, to modify the noun phrase Mediterranean predecessors.
6. In virtually all types of tissue in every animal species, dioxin induces the production of
enzymes that are the organism's trying to metabolize, or render harmless. the chemical
that is irritating it.
(A) trying to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical that is irritating it
(B) trying that it metabolize, or render harmless, the . chemical irritant
(C) attempt to try to metabolize, or render harmless, such a chemical irritant
(D) attempt to try and metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritating it
(E) attempt to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant
Answer with explanation:
Although an "-ing" verb such as trying can sometimes be used as a noun, the phrase the
organism's trying to metabolize in A is unidiomatic because trying is used as the object of
organism's. In B, trying that it metabolize is ungrammatical. The noun attempt could follow
organism's; also, it would parallel the noun enzymes, and parallelism is needed here
because the sentence uses the linking verb are to equate enzymes and attempt. In C and D,
however, attempt to try is redundant. Choice E, which says attempt to metabolize, is best.
The phrase the chemical irritant is also the most concise and precise conclusion for the
sentence because it clearly refers to the dioxin mentioned earlier.
7. Dr. Hakuta's research among Hispanic children in the United States indicates that the
more the children use both Spanish and English, their intellectual advantage is greater in
skills underlying reading ability and nonverbal logic.
(A) their intellectual advantage is greater in skills underlying reading ability and
nonverbal logic
(B) their intellectual advantage is the greater in skills underlaying reading ability and
nonverbal logic
(C) the greater their intellectual advantage in skills underlying reading ability and
nonverbal logic
4
(D) in skills that underlay reading ability and nonverbal logic, their intellectual advantage
is the greater
(E) in skills underlying reading ability and nonverbal logic, the greater intellectual
advantage is theirs
Answer with explanation:
The best choice is C. The phrase the more the children should be completed by a parallel
phrase that begins with a comparative adjective and a noun phrase, as in the greater their...
advantage. Only C correctly completes the structure with a parallel phrase. Choices A. B, D,
and E present structures that are unwieldy and awkward in addition to being nonparallel, and
that state the relationship between language use and skills development less clearly than C
does. Also, underlaying in B and underlay in D are incorrect; the meaning of this sentence
requires the present participle of "underlie," underlying, as a modifier of skills.
8. Lacking information about energy use, people tend to overestimate the amount of energy
used by equipment. such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and
underestimate that used by unobtrusive equipment, such as water heaters.
(A) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and
underestimate that
(B) equipment, such as lights, that are visible and must be turned on and off and
underestimate it when
(C) equipment, such as lights, that is visible and must be turned on and off and
underestimate it when
(D) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate
that
(E) visible equipment, such as lights, that must be turned on and off and underestimate
it when
Answer with explanation:
Choices A and B incorrectly use the plural verb are with the singular noun equipment. In B, C,
and E, when used by does not parallel amount... used by and nonsensically suggests that
the people are used by the equipment. D, the best choice, correctly parallels the amount...
used by with that used by, in which that is the pronoun substitute for amount. Moreover, D
solves the agreement problem of A and B by omitting the to be verb used with visible and
placing visible before equipment', the phrase visible equipment is also parallel with
unobtrusive equipment.
9. Astronomers at the Palomar Observatory have discovered a distant supernova explosion,
one that they believe is a type previously unknown to science.
(A) that they believe is
(B) that they believe it to be
(C) they believe that it is of
(D) they believe that is
5
(E) they believe to be of
Answer with explanation:
Choice E is best. The pronoun that in A and B should be deleted, since the pronoun one is
sufficient to introduce the modifier and the sentence is more fluid without that. In B and C, it
and that it are intrusive and ungrammatical: the idiom is "believe x to be y." In the context of
this sentence, the infinitive to be is more appropriate than the limited present-tense is in
referring to an event that occurred long ago but has been discovered only recently. Finally, A,
B, and D lack o/and so illogically equate this particular explosion with the whole class of
explosions to which it belongs: it is not a type but possibly one of a type.
10. However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and
that the government as a whole spends beyond its means, it is difficult to find broad
support for a movement toward a minimal state.
(A) However much United States voters may agree that
(B) Despite the agreement among United States voters to the fact
(C) Although United States voters agree
(D) Even though United States voters may agree
(E) There is agreement among United States voters that
Answer with explanation:
A is the best choice. Choices B, C, and D incorrectly omit that after agree; that is needed to
create the parallel construction agree that there is waste . . . and that the government...
spends. Choice E, though it retains that, is grammatically incorrect: because E starts with an
independent rather than a subordinate clause and separates its two independent clauses with
a comma, it creates a run-on sentence with no logical connection established between the
halves. In B, the agreement ... to the fact is unidiomatic, and B, C, and E alter the sense of
the original sentence by saying that voters agree rather than that they may agree.
11. Based on accounts of various ancient writers, scholars have painted a sketchy picture of
the activities of an all-female cult that, perhaps as early as the sixth century B.C.,
worshipped a goddess known in Latin as Bona Dea, "the good goddess."
(A) Based on accounts of various ancient writers
(B) Basing it on various ancient writers' accounts
(C) With accounts of various ancient writers used for a basis
(D) By the accounts of various ancient writers they used
(E) Using accounts of various ancient writers
Answer with explanation:
In choice A, the introductory clause beginning Based on modifies scholars, the noun that
immediately follows it: in other words, A says that scholars were based on the accounts of
various ancient writers. Choice B is awkward and imprecise in that the referent for the
pronoun it is not immediately clear. C and D are also wordy and awkward, and in D By the
accounts... they used is an unidiomatic and roundabout way of saying that scholars used me
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accounts. E, the best choice, is clear and concise; it correctly uses a present participle (or
"-ing" verb) to introduce the modifier describing how the scholars worked.
12. Formulas for cash flow and the ratio of debt to equity do not apply to new small
businesses in the same way as they do to established big businesses, because they are
growing and are seldom in equilibrium.
(A) Formulas for cash flow and the ratio of debt to equity do not apply to new small
businesses in the same way as they do to established big businesses, because they
are growing and are seldom in equilibrium.
(B) Because they are growing and are seldom in equilibrium, formulas for cash flow and
the ratio of debt to equity do not apply to new small businesses in the same way as
they do to established big businesses.
(C) Because they are growing and are seldom in equilibrium, new small businesses are
not subject to the same applicability of formulas for cash flow and the ratio of debt to
equity as established big businesses.
(D) Because new small businesses are growing and are seldom in equilibrium, formulas
for cash flow and the ratio of debt to equity do not apply to them in the same way as
to established big businesses.
(E) New small businesses are not subject to the applicability of formulas for cash flow
and the ratio of debt to equity in the same way as established big businesses,
because they are growing and are seldom in equilibrium.
Answer with explanation:
In A, the they after because is ambiguous; it seems illogically to refer to Formulas because
they and Formulas are each the grammatical subject of a clause and because the previous
they refers to Formulas. In A and B, do not apply to... in the same way as they do to is
wordy and awkward. D, the best choice, says more concisely in the same way as to. Also in B,
because they refers to formulas, the introductory clause states confusedly that the formulas
are growing. In C and E, subject to the [same] applicability of... is wordy, awkward, and
imprecise; furthermore, are is preferable either before or after established big businesses to
complete the comparison. Finally, the referent of they is not immediately clear in E.
13. State officials report that soaring rates of liability insurance have risen to force cutbacks
in the operations of everything from local governments and school districts to day-care
centers and recreational facilities.
(A) rates of liability insurance have risen to force
(B) rates of liability insurance are a force for
(C) rates for liability insurance are forcing
(D) rises in liability insurance rates are forcing
(E) liability insurance rates have risen to force
Answer with explanation:
7
In choices A and B, rates of is incorrect; when rates means "prices charged," it should be
followed by for. Also in B, are a force for does not accurately convey the meaning that the
soaring rates are actually forcing cutbacks in the present. In A and E, it is redundant to say that
soaring rates have risen. Similarly, the word rises makes D redundant. C, the best choice, is
idiomatic and concise, and it correctly uses the progressive verb form are forcing to indicate
an ongoing situation.
14. Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and
estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the
evolutionary path that led to human beings.
(A) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(B) as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of
(C) that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was
(D) to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(E) as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was
Answer with explanation:
D, the best choice, correctly follows estimated with to be. The other choices present
structures that are not idiomatic when used in conjunction with estimated. Choices B, C, and
E all mismatch the singular verb provides with its plural subject, fragments, and in choices C
and E, what was is unnecessary and wordy. In choice C, the use of the verb phrase
estimated that it is produces an ungrammatical sentence.
15. In his research paper, Dr. Frosh, medical director of the Payne Whitney Clinic,
distinguishes mood swings. which may be violent without their being grounded in mental
disease, from genuine manic-depressive psychosis.
(A) mood swings, which may be violent without their being grounded in mental disease,
from genuine manic-depressive psychosis
(B) mood swings, perhaps violent without being grounded in mental disease, and
genuine manic-depressive psychosis ,
(C) between mood swings, which may be violent without being grounded in mental
disease, and genuine manic-depressive psychosis
(D) between mood swings, perhaps violent without being grounded in mental disease,
from genuine manic-depressive psychosis
(E) genuine manic-depressive psychosis and mood swings, which may be violent
without being grounded in mental disease
Answer with explanation:
The best choice is C because it uses the idiomatically correct expression distinguishes
between x and y and because it provides a structure in which the relative clause beginning
which may be violent clearly modifies mood swings. The other choices use distinguishes
in unidiomatic constructions. Additionally, their in A is intrusive and unnecessary, and the
modifier of mood swings in B and D (perhaps violent) is awkward and less clear than the
more developed clause which may be violent.
8
16. Unlike a typical automobile loan, which requires a fifteen- to twenty-percent down
payment, the lease-loan buyer is not required to make an initial deposit on the new
vehicle.
(A) the lease-loan buyer is not required to make
(B) with lease-loan buying there is no requirement of
(C) lease-loan buyers are not required to make
(D) for the lease-loan buyer there is no requirement of
(E) a lease-loan does not require the buyer to make
Answer with explanation:
Choice E, the best answer, correctly uses a parallel construction to draw a logical comparison:
Unlike a typical automobile loan,... a lease-loan.... Choice A illogically compares an
automobile loan, an inanimate thing, with a lease-loan buyer, a person. In choice C, buyers
makes the comparison inconsistent in number as well as illogical. Choices B and D are
syntactically and logically flawed because each attempts to compare the noun loan and a
prepositional phrase: with lease-loan buying in B and/or the lease-loan buyer in D. Choices
B and D are also imprecise and awkward. Finally, choice E is the only option that supplies an
active verb form, does not require, to parallel requires.
17. Native American burial sites dating back 5,000 years indicate that the residents of Maine
at that time were part of a widespread culture of Algonquian-speaking people.
(A) were part of a widespread culture of Algonquian-speaking people
(B) had been part of a widespread culture of people who were Algonquian-speaking
(C) were people who were part of a widespread culture that was Algonquian-speaking
(D) had been people who were part of a widespread culture that was
Algonquian-speaking
(E) were a people which had been part of a widespread, Algonquian-speaking culture
Answer with explanation:
Choice A is best because it correctly uses the simple past tense, the residents... at that time
were, and because it is the most concise. In B and D, the replacement of were with the past
perfect had been needlessly changes the original meaning by suggesting that the Native
Americans had previously ceased to be part of the widespread culture. All of the choices but A
are wordy, and in C, D, and E the word people redundantly describes the residents rather
than the larger group to which the residents belonged. These choices are also imprecise
because they state that the culture, rather than people, spoke the Algonquian language.
Choice E displays inconsistent tenses and an error of pronoun reference, people which.
18. Each of Hemingway's wives--Hadley Richardson. Pauline Pfeiffer. Martha Gelhom. and
Mary Welsh --were strong and interesting women, very different from the often pallid
women who populate his novels.
(A) Each of Hemingway's wives--Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhom,
and Mary Welsh--were strong and interesting women,
9
(B) Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhorn, and Mary Welsh--each of
them Hemingway's wives--were strong and, interesting women,
(C) Hemingway's wives--Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha Gelhom, and
Mary Welsh--were all strong and interesting women,
(D) Strong and interesting women�Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha
Gelhom, and Mary Welsh--each a wife of Hemingway, was
(E) Strong and interesting women�Hadley Richardson, Pauline Pfeiffer, Martha
Gelhom, and Mary Welsh--every one of Hemingway's wives were
Answer with explanation:
Each choice but C contains errors of agreement. In both A and E, the singular subject (each in
A, every one in E) does not agree with the plural verb were, while in D, the plural subject
women is mismatched with the singular verb was. In B, the subject and verb agree, but the
descriptive phrase placed between them creates an illogical statement because each cannot
be wives; each can be one of the wives, or a wife. The pronoun constructions in A, B, D, and
E are wordy; also, B, D, and E are very awkwardly structured and do not convey the point
about Hemingway's wives clearly. Choice C correctly links wives with were, eliminates the
unnecessary pronouns, and provides a clearer structure.
19. In addition to having more protein -than wheat does, the protein in rice is higher quality
than that in wheat, with more of the amino acids essential to the human diet.
(A) the protein in rice is higher quality than that in
(B) rice has protein of higher quality than that in
(C) the protein in rice is higher in quality than it is in
(D) rice protein is higher in quality than it is in
(E) rice has a protein higher in quality than
Answer with explanation:
In this sentence, the initial clause modifies the nearest noun, identifying it as the thing being
compared with wheat. By making protein the noun modified, choices A, C, and D illogically
compare wheat with protein and claim that the protein in rice has more protein than wheat
does. In C and D, the comparative structure higher in quality than it is in wheat absurdly
suggests that rice protein contains wheat. B, the best choice, logically compares wheat to rice
by placing the noun rice immediately after the initial clause. B also uses that to refer to
protein in making the comparison between the proteins of rice and wheat. Choice E needs
either that in or does after wheat to make a complete and logical comparison.
20. An array of tax incentives has led to a boom in the construction of new office buildings; so
abundant has capital been for commercial real estate that investors regularly scour the
country for areas in which to build.
(A) so abundant has capital been for commercial real estate that
(B) capital has been so abundant for commercial real estate, so that
(C) the abundance of capital for commercial real estate has been such,
(D) such has the abundance of capital been for commercial real estate that
10
(E) such has been an abundance of capital for commercial real estate,
Answer with explanation:
Choice A is best. The construction so abundant has capital been... that correctly and clearly
expresses the relationship between the abundance and the investors' response. In choice B,
the repetition of so is illogical and unidiomatic. Choices C, D, and E alter somewhat the
intended meaning of the sentence; because of its position in these statements, such functions
to mean "of a kind" rather than to intensify abundant. Choice D awkwardly separates has and
been, and the omission of that from C and E makes those choices ungrammatical.
21. Defense attorneys have occasionally argued that their clients' misconduct stemmed from
a reaction to something ingested, but in attributing criminal or delinquent behavior to
some food allergy, the perpetrators are in effect told that they are not responsible for their
actions.
(A) in attributing criminal or delinquent behavior to some food allergy
(B) if criminal or delinquent behavior is attributed to an allergy to some food
(C) in attributing behavior that is criminal or delinquent to an allergy to some food
(D) if some food allergy is attributed as the cause of criminal or delinquent behavior
(E) in attributing a food allergy as the cause of criminal or delinquent behavior
Answer with explanation:
In choices A, C, and E, in attributing ... behavior modifies the perpetrators, producing the
illogical statement that the perpetrators rather than the defense attorneys are attributing
behavior to food allergies. Choice C is also wordy, and attributing ... as is unidiomatic in E. In
the correct form of the expression, one attributes x, an effect, to y, a cause; or, if a passive
construction is used, x is attributed to y. D avoids the initial modification error by using a
passive construction (in which the attributors are not identified), but attributed x as the cause
of y is unidiomatic. Choice B is best.
22. The voluminous personal papers of Thomas Alva Edison reveal that his inventions
typically sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly from previous works.
(A) (A) sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly
(B) sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but were slowly evolved
(C) did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly
(D) did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but had slowly evolved
(E) did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but they were slowly evolved
Answer with explanation:
C, the best choice, places not and but in such a way that the distinction between springing to
life in a flash of inspiration and evolving slowly is logically and idiomatically expressed. A and B
are faulty because, for grammatical parallelism, not in a flash... must be followed by but in...,
not by a conjugated form of the verb. Moreover, were slowly evolved is incorrect in B
because evolve, in this sense of the word, cannot be made passive. Choices C, D, and E all
11
correctly place not before spring. D, however, contains inconsistent verb tenses; E contains
the faulty passive and an intrusive they.
23. A Labor Department study states that the numbers of women employed outside the home
grew by more than a thirty-five percent increase in the past decade and accounted for
more than sixty-two percent of the total growth in the civilian work force.
(A) numbers of women employed outside the home grew by more than a thirty-five
percent increase
(B) numbers of women employed outside the home grew more than thirty-five percent
(C) numbers of women employed outside the home were raised by more than thirty-five
percent
(D) number of women employed outside the home increased by more than thirty-five
percent
(E) number of women employed outside the home was raised by more than a thirty-five
percent increase
Answer with explanation:
Because a count of women employed outside the home at any given time will be expressed by
a single number, the use of the plural noun numbers in choices A, B, and C is illogical. In A,
the phrase grew by more than a thirty-five percent increase is redundant and wordy, since
the sense of increase is implicit in the verb grew. In C and E, the passive verb forms were
raised and was raised are inappropriate because there is no identifiable agent responsible for
the raising of the number of women employed. In choice E, was raised by ... increase is
redundant. Choice D, which presents the comparison logically and idiomatically, is the best
answer.
24. The first decision for most tenants living in a building undergoing being converted to
cooperative ownership is if to sign a no-buy pledge with the other tenants.
(A) being converted to cooperative ownership is if to sign
(B) being converted to cooperative ownership is whether they should be signing
(C) being converted to cooperative ownership is whether or not they sign
(D) conversion to cooperative ownership is if to sign
(E) conversion to cooperative ownership is whether to sign
Answer with explanation:
In A, B, and C, the phrase being converted is awkward and redundant, since the sense of
process indicated by being has already been conveyed by undergoing. A and D can be
faulted for saying if rather than whether, since the sentence poses alternative possibilities, to
sign or not to sign. Only E, the best choice, idiomatically completes whether with an infinitive,
to sign, that functions as a noun equivalent of decision. Choice E also uses the noun
conversion, which grammatically completes the phrase begun by undergoing.
12
25. The end of the eighteenth century saw the emergence of prize-stock breeding, with
individual bulls and cows receiving awards, fetching unprecedented prices, and excited
enormous interest whenever they were put on show.
(A) excited
(B) it excited
(C) exciting
(D) would excite
(E) it had excited
Answer with explanation:
Choice C is best. The third verb phrase in the series describing bulls and cows should have
the same grammatical form as the first two. Only choice C has a present participle (or "-ing"
form) that is parallel with the two preceding verbs, receiving and fetching. Instead of the
present participle, choices A and B use the past tense (excited), choice D uses an auxiliary
verb (would excite), and choice E uses the past perfect tense (had excited). Additionally, the
incorrect verb tenses in B and E are introduced by a pronoun, it, that lacks a logical noun
referent.
26. Of all the possible disasters that threaten American agriculture, the possibility of an
adverse change in climate is maybe the more difficult for analysis.
(A) is maybe the more difficult for analysis
(B) is probably the most difficult to analyze
(C) is maybe the most difficult for analysis
(D) is probably the more difficult to analyze
(E) is, it may be, the analysis that is most difficult
Answer with explanation:
Choice B is the best answer. The sentence compares one thing, an adverse change in
climate, to all other things in its class-- that is, to all the possible disasters that threaten
American agriculture, therefore, the sentence requires the superlative form of the adjective,
most difficult, rather than the comparative form, more difficult, which appears in choices A
and D. In A and C, the use of maybe is unidiomatic, and difficult should be completed by the
infinitive to analyze. Choice E is awkwardly phrased and, when inserted into the sentence,
produces an illogical structure: the possibility ... is... the analysis that.
27. Published in Harlem, the owner and editor of the Messenger were two young journalists.
Chandler Owen j and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor
leader.
(A) Published in Harlem, the owner and editor of the Messenger were two young
journalists. Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his
reputation as a labor leader.
(B) Published in Harlem, two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph,
who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, were the owner and editor of
the Messenger.
13
(C) Published in Harlem, the Messenger was owned and edited by two young journalists,
A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, and
Chandler Owen.
(D) The Messenger was owned and edited by two young journalists. Chandler Owen
and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, and
published in Harlem.
(E) The owner and editor being two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip
Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, the Messenger was
published in Harlem.
Answer with explanation:
Choices A and B present dangling modifiers that illogically suggest that Owen and Randolph,
rather than the Messenger, were published in Harlem. In D, the phrase and published in
Harlem is too remote from the Messenger to modify it effectively. In E, being produces an
awkward construction, and the placement of the main clause at the end of the sentence is
confusing. Only in C, the best answer, is Published in Harlem followed immediately by the
Messenger. Also, C makes it clear that the clause beginning who refers to Randolph.
28. The rise in the Commerce Department's index of leading economic indicators suggest that
the economy should continue its expansion into the coming months. but that the mixed
performance of the index's individual components indicates that economic growth will
proceed at a more moderate pace than in the first quarter of this year.
(A) suggest that the economy should continue its expansion into the coming months, but
that
(B) suggest that the economy is to continue expansion in the coming months, but
(C) suggests that the economy will continue its expanding in the coming months, but
that
(D) suggests that the economy is continuing to expand into the coming months, but that
(E) suggests that the economy will continue to expand in the coming months, but
Answer with explanation:
In choices A and B, the verb suggest does not agree with its singular subject, rise. In context,
the phrase into the coming months in A and D is not idiomatic; in the coming months is
preferable. In A, C, and D, the that appearing after but creates a subordinate clause where an
independent clause is needed for the new subject, mixed performance. Choice E includes
the correct verb form, suggests, eliminates that, and properly employs the future tense, will
continue to expand. That this tense is called for is indicated both by the future time to which
the coming months refers and by the parallel verb form will proceed in the nonunderlined
part of the sentence. Choice E is best.
29. In three centuries--from 1050 to 1350--several million tons of stone were quarried in
France for the building of eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and some tens of
thousands of parish churches.
(A) for the building of eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and some
14
(B) in order that they might build eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and
some
(C) so as they might build eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and some
(D) so that there could be built eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and
(E) such that they could build eighty cathedrals, five hundred large churches, and
30. What was as remarkable as the development of the compact disc has been the use of the
new technology to revitalize, in better sound than was ever before possible, some of the
classic recorded performances of the pre-LP era.
(A) What was as remarkable as the development of the compact disc
(B) The thing that was as remarkable as developing the compact disc
(C) No less remarkable than the development of the compact disc
(D) Developing the compact disc has been none the less remarkable than
(E) Development of the compact disc has been no less remarkable as
31. Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, there is a disinclination on the part of many
people to recognize the degree to which their analytical skills are weak.
(A) Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, there is a disinclination on the part of
many people to recognize the degree to which their analytical skills are weak.
(B) Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, which they admit they lack, many
people are disinclined to recognize that their analytical skills are weak.
(C) Unlike computer skills or other technical skills, analytical skills bring out a
disinclination in many people to recognize that they are weak to a degree.
(D) Many people, willing to admit that they lack computer skills or other technical skills,
are disinclined to recognize that their analytical skills are weak.
(E) Many people have a disinclination to recognize the weakness of their analytical skills
while willing to admit their lack of computer skills or other technical skills.
32. Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year
were constructed in violation of the city's building code.
(A) Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last
year were
(B) Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year
had been
(C) Some buildings that the earthquake destroyed and heavily damaged last year have
been
(D) Last year the earthquake destroyed or heavily damaged some buildings that have
been
(E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the
earthquake had been
33. From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society
organized its labor, provided access to its resources, and defined rights and obligations
involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources.
15
(A) and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of
those resources
(B) defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption
(C) and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and
consumption
(D) whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption
(E) the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations
34. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that
much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes
from the incineration of wastes.
(A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed
comes
(B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to
come
(C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are
exposed to comes
(D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are
exposed to come
(E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed
come
35. In June of 1987, The Bridge of Trinquetaille, Vincent van Gogh's view of an iron bridge
over the Rhone sold for $20.2 million and it was the second highest price ever paid for a
painting at auction.
(A) Rhone sold for $20.2 million and it was
(B) Rhone, which sold for $20.2 million, was
(C) Rhone, was sold for $20.2 million,
(D) Rhone was sold for $20.2 million, being
(E) Rhone, sold for $20.2 million, and was
36. Bufo marinus toads, fierce predators that will eat frogs, lizards, and even small birds, are
native to South America but were introduced into Florida during the 1930's in an attempt
to control pests in the state's vast sugarcane fields.
(A) are native to South America but were introduced into Florida during the 1930's in an
attempt to control
(B) are native in South America but were introduced into Florida during the 1930's as
attempts to control
(C) are natives of South America but were introduced into Florida during the 1930's in
an attempt at controlling
(D) had been native to South America but were introduced to Florida during the 1930's
as an attempt at controlling
(E) had been natives of South America but were introduced to Florida during the 1930's
as attempts at controlling
16
37. While some academicians believe that business ethics should be integrated into every
business course, others say that students will take ethics seriously only if it would be
taught as a separately required course.
(A) only if it would be taught as a separately required course
(B) only if it is taught as a separate, required course
(C) if it is taught only as a course required separately
(D) if it was taught only as a separate and required course
(E) if it would only be taught as a required course, separately
38. Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal deposits in the upper
twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of
industrial activity there.
(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these
findings
(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial
activity in the area
(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
39. For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields
with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect
warriors against enemy arrows and spears.
(A) a method to protect
(B) as a method protecting
(C) protecting
(D) as a protection of
(E) to protect
40. In metalwork one advantage of adhesive-bonding over spot-welding is that the contact,
and hence the bonding, is effected continuously over a broad surface instead of a series
of regularly spaced points with no bonding in between.
(A) instead of
(B) as opposed to
(C) in contrast with
(D) rather than at
(E) as against being at
41. Under a provision of the Constitution that was never applied. Congress has been required
to call a convention for considering possible amendments to the document when formally
asked to do it by the legislatures of two-thirds of the states.
(A) was never applied, Congress has been required to call a convention for considering
possible amendments to the document when formally asked to do it
17
(B) was never applied, there has been a requirement that Congress call a convention for
consideration of possible amendments to the document when asked to do it formally
(C) was never applied, whereby Congress is required to call a convention for
considering possible amendments to the document when asked to do it formally
(D) has never been applied, whereby Congress is required to call a convention to
consider possible amendments to the document when formally asked to do so
(E) has never been applied. Congress is required to call a convention to consider
possible amendments to the document when formally asked to do so
42. The current administration, being worried over some foreign trade barriers being removed
and our exports failing to increase as a result of deep cuts in the value of the dollar, has
formed a group to study ways to sharpen our competitiveness.
(A) being worried over some foreign trade barriers being removed and our exports
failing
(B) worrying over some foreign trade barriers being removed, also over the failure of our
exports
(C) worried about the removal of some foreign trade barriers and the failure of our
exports
(D) in that they were worried about the removal of some foreign trade barriers and also
about the failure of our exports
(E) because of its worry concerning the removal of some foreign trade barriers, also
concerning the failure of our exports
43. In the minds of many people living in England, before Australia was Australia, it was the
antipodes, the opposite pole to civilization, an obscure and unimaginable place that was
considered the end of the world.
(A) before Australia was Australia, it was the antipodes
(B) before there was Australia, it was the antipodes
(C) it was the antipodes that was Australia
(D) Australia was what was the antipodes
(E) Australia was what had been known as the antipodes
44. Using a Doppler ultrasound device, fetal heartbeats can be detected by the twelfth week
of pregnancy.
(A) Using a Doppler ultrasound device, fetal heart-beats can be detected by the twelfth
week of pregnancy.
(B) Fetal heartbeats can be detected by the twelfth week of pregnancy, using a Doppler
ultrasound device.
(C) Detecting fetal heartbeats by the twelfth week of pregnancy, a physician can use a
Doppler ultrasound device.
(D) By the twelfth week of pregnancy, fetal heartbeats can be detected using a Doppler
ultrasound device by a physician.
(E) Using a Doppler ultrasound device, a physician can detect fetal heartbeats by the
twelfth week of pregnancy.
18
45. Delighted by the reported earnings for the first quarter of the fiscal year, it was
decided by the company manager to give her staff a raise.
(A) it was decided by the company manager to give her staff a raise
(B) the decision of the company manager was to give her staff a raise
(C) the company manager decided to give her staff a raise
(D) the staff was given a raise by the company manager
(E) a raise was given to the staff by the company manager
46. A study commissioned by the Department of Agriculture showed that if calves exercise
and associated with other calves, they will require less medication and gain weight
quicker than do those raised in confinement.
(A) associated with other calves, they will require less medication and gain weight
quicker than do
(B) associated with other calves, they require less medication and gain weight quicker
than
(C) associate with other calves, they required less medication and will gain weight
quicker than do
(D) associate with other calves, they have required less medication and will gain weight
more quickly than do
(E) associate with other calves, they require less medication and gain weight more
quickly than
47. Displays of the aurora borealis, or "northern lights," can heat the atmosphere over the
arctic enough to affect the trajectories of ballistic missiles, induce electric currents that
can cause blackouts in some areas and corrosion in north-south pipelines.
(A) to affect the trajectories of ballistic missiles, induce
(B) that the trajectories of ballistic missiles are affected, induce
(C) that it affects the trajectories of ballistic missiles, induces
(D) that the trajectories of ballistic missiles are affected and induces
(E) to affect the trajectories of ballistic missiles and induce
48. The golden crab of the Gulf of Mexico has not been fished commercially in great
numbers, primarily on account of living at great depths-- 2,500 to 3,000 feet down.
(A) on account of living
(B) on account of their living
(C) because it lives
(D) because of living
(E) being they live
49. The cameras of the Voyager II spacecraft detected six small, previously unseen moons
circling Uranus, which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting
the distant planet
(A) which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting
19
(B) doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known to orbit
(C) which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known in orbit around
(D) doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting
(E) which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known that orbit
50. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it
would be rated about 20/500. or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.
(A) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of
vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such
vision.
(B) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision
that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult
(C) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision
would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult
(D) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision
that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally
blind.
(E) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision,
which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.
51. While Jackie Robinson was a Brooklyn Dodger, his courage in the face of physical
threats and verbal attacks was not unlike that of Rosa Parks, who refused to move to the
back of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama.
(A) not unlike that of Rosa Parks, who refused
(B) not unlike Rosa Parks, who refused
(C) like (Rosa Parks and her refusal
(D) like that of Rosa Parks for refusing
(E) as that of Rosa Parks, who refused
52. The rising of costs of data-processing operations at many financial institutions has created
a growing opportunity for independent companies to provide these services more
efficiently and at lower cost.
(A) The rising of costs
(B) Rising costs
(C) The rising cost
(D) Because the rising cost
(E) Because of rising costs
53. There is no consensus on what role. if any, is played by acid rain in slowing the growth or
damaging forests in the eastern United States.
(A) slowing the growth or damaging
(B) the damage or the slowing of the growth of
(C) the damage to or the slowness of the growth of
(D) damaged or slowed growth of
20
(E) damaging or slowing the growth of
54. Galileo was convinced that natural phenomena, as manifestations of the laws of physics,
would appear the same to someone on the deck of a ship moving smoothly and uniformly
through the water as a person standing on land.
(A) water as a
(B) water as to a
(C) water; just as it would to a
(D) water, as it would to the
(E) water; just as to the
55. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early
retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice
insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
56. Architects and stonemasons, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya
without benefit of the wheel or animal transport.
(A) huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel
or animal transport
(B) without the benefits of animal transport or the wheel, huge palace and temple
clusters were built by the Maya
(C) the Maya built huge palace and temple clusters without the benefit of animal
transport or the wheel
(D) there were built, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, huge palace
and temple clusters by the Maya
(E) were the Maya who, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, built huge
palace and temple clusters
57. In astronomy the term "red shift" denotes the extent to which light from a distant galaxy has
been shifted toward the red, or long-wave, end of the light spectrum by the rapid motion of
the galaxy away from the Earth.
(A) to which light from a distant galaxy has been shifted
(B) to which light from a distant galaxy has shifted
(C) that light from a distant galaxy has been shifted
(D) of light from a distant galaxy shifting
(E) of the shift of light from a distant galaxy
21
58. William H. Johnson's artistic debt to Scandinavia is evident in paintings that range from
sensitive portraits of citizens in his wife's Danish home, Kerteminde, and awe-inspiring
views of fjords and mountain peaks in the western and northern regions of Norway.
(A) and
(B) to
(C) and to
(D) with
(E) in addition to
59. In 1978 only half the women granted child support by a court received the amount
awarded; at least as much as a million and more others had not any support agreements
whatsoever.
(A) at least as much as a million and more others had not any
(B) at least as much as more than a million others had no
(C) more than a million others had not any
(D) more than a million others had no
(E) there was at least a million or more others without any
60. According to a recent poll, owning and living in a freestanding house on its own land is still
a goal of a majority of young adults, like that of earlier generations.
(A) like that of earlier generations
(B) as that for earlier generations
(C) just as earlier generations did
(D) as have earlier generations
(E) as it was of earlier generations
61. The Gorton-Dodd bill requires that a bank disclose to their customers how long they will
delay access to funds from deposited checks.
(A) that a bank disclose to their customers how long they will delay access to funds from
deposited checks
(B) a bank to disclose to their customers how long they will delay access to funds from a
deposited check
(C) that a bank disclose to its customers how long it will delay access to funds from
deposited checks
(D) a bank that it should disclose to its customers how long it will delay access to funds
from a deposited check
(E) that banks disclose to customers how long access to funds from their deposited
check is to be delayed
62. Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden
fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust,
changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of
underground rocks.
(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone and varying
22
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among
63. Health officials estimate that 35 million Africans are in danger of contracting
trypanosomiasis, or "African sleeping sickness," a parasitic disease spread by the bites
of tsetse flies.
(A) are in danger of contracting
(B) are in danger to contract
(C) have a danger of contracting
(D) are endangered by contraction
(E) have a danger that they will contract
64. Unlike a funded pension system, in Which contributions are invested to pay future
beneficiaries, a pay-as-you-go approach is the foundation of Social Security.
(A) a pay-as-you-go approach is the foundation of Social Security
(B) the foundation of Social Security is a pay-as-you-go approach
(C) the approach of Social Security is pay-as-you-go
(D) Social Security's approach is pay-as-you-go
(E) Social Security is founded on a pay-as-you-go approach
65. Critics of the trend toward privately operated prisons consider corrections facilities to be
an integral part of the criminal justice system and question if profits should be made from
incarceration.
(A) to be an integral part of the criminal justice system and question if
(B) as an integral part of the criminal justice system and they question if
(C) as being an integral part of the criminal justice system and question whether
(D) an integral part of the criminal justice system and question Whether
(E) are an integral part of the criminal justice system, and they question whether
66. The Federal Reserve Board's reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions is
both an acknowledgment of past economic trends and an effort to influence their future
direction.
(A) reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions is both an
acknowledgment of past economic trends and an effort
(B) reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions is an acknowledgment
both of past economic trends as well as an effort
(C) reduction of interest rates on loans to financial institutions both acknowledge past
economic trends and attempt
(D) reducing interest rates on loans to financial institutions is an acknowledgment both
of past economic trends and an effort
(E) reducing interest rates on loans to financial institutions both acknowledge past
economic trends as well as attempt
23
67. Congress is debating a bill requiring certain employers provide workers with unpaid
leave so as to care for sick or newbom children.
(A) provide workers with unpaid leave so as to
(B) to provide workers with unpaid leave so as to
(C) provide workers with unpaid leave in order that they
(D) to provide workers with unpaid leave so that they can
(E) provide workers with unpaid leave and
68. Often visible as smog, ozone is formed in the atmosphere from hydrocarbons and
nitrogen oxides, two major pollutants emitted by automobiles, react with sunlight.
(A) ozone is formed in the atmosphere from
(B) ozone is formed in the atmosphere when
(C) ozone is formed in the atmosphere, and when
(D) ozone, formed in the atmosphere when
(E) ozone, formed in the atmosphere from
69. Although she had signed a pledge of abstinence while being an adolescent. Frances
Willard was 35 years old before she chose to become a temperance activist.
(A) while being an adolescent
(B) while in adolescence
(C) at the time of her being adolescent
(D) as being in adolescence
(E) as an adolescent
70. A President entering the final two years of a second term is likely to be at a severe
disadvantage and is often unable to carry out a legislative program.
(A) likely to be at a severe disadvantage and is often unable to
(B) likely severely disadvantaged and often unable to
(C) liable to be severely disadvantaged and cannot often
(D) liable that he or she is at a severe disadvantage and cannot often
(E) at a severe disadvantage, often likely to be unable that he or she can
71. The original building and loan associations were organized as limited life funds, whose
members made monthly payments on their share subscriptions, then taking turns drawing
on the funds for home mortgages.
(A) subscriptions, then taking turns drawing
(B) subscriptions, and then taking turns drawing
(C) subscriptions and then took turns drawing
(D) subscriptions and then took turns, they drew
(E) subscriptions and then drew, taking turns
72. The number of undergraduate degrees in engineering awarded by colleges and
universities in the United States increased by more than twice from 1978 to 1985.
24
(A) increased by more than twice
(B) increased more than two times
(C) more than doubled
(D) was more than doubled
(E) had more than doubled
73. The British Admiralty and the War Office met in March 1892 to consider a possible
Russian attempt to seize Constantinople and how they would have to act militarily to deal
with them.
(A) how they would have to act militarily to deal with them
(B) how to deal with them if military action would be necessary
(C) what would be necessary militarily for dealing with such an event
(D) what military action would be necessary in order to deal with such an event
(E) the necessity of what kind of military action in order to take for dealing with it
74. Growing competitive pressures may be encouraging auditors to bend the rules in favor of
clients; auditors may, for instance, allow a questionable loan to remain on the books in
order to maintain a bank's profits on paper.
(A) clients; auditors may, for instance, allow
(B) clients, as an instance, to allow
(C) clients, like to allow
(D) clients, such as to be allowing
(E) clients; which might, as an instance, be the allowing of
75. If the proposed expenditures for gathering information abroad are reduced even further,
international news reports have been and will continue to diminish in number and quality.
(A) have been and will continue to diminish
(B) have and will continue to diminish
(C) will continue to diminish, as they already did,
(D) will continue to diminish, as they have already,
(E) will continue to diminish
76. Gall's hypothesis of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the
brain is widely accepted today.
(A) of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is
widely accepted today
(B) of different mental functions that are localized in different parts of the brain is widely
accepted today
(C) that different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain is widely
accepted today
(D) which is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of the
brain is widely accepted today
(E) which is widely accepted today is that there are different mental functions localized
in different parts of the brain
25
77. Though the term "graphic design" may suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual
reports, they have come to signify widely ranging work, from package designs and
company logotypes to signs, book jackets, computer graphics, and film titles.
(A) suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to
signify widely ranging
(B) suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, it has come to signify a
wide range of
(C) suggest corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified widely ranging
(D) have suggested corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified a wide
range of
(E) have suggested laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come
to signify widely ranging
78. The root systems of most flowering perennials either become too crowded, which results
in loss in vigor, and spread too far outward, producing a bare center.
(A) which results in loss in vigor, and spread
(B) resulting in loss in vigor, or spreading
(C) with the result of loss of vigor, or spreading
(D) resulting in loss of vigor, or spread
(E) with a resulting loss of vigor, and spread
79. George Sand (Aurore Lucile Dupin) was one of the first European writers to consider the
rural poor to be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these with sympathy and
respect in her novels.
(A) to be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these
(B) should be legitimate subjects for literature: portray these
(C) as being legitimate subjects for literature an portraying them
(D) as if they were legitimate subjects for literal; and portray them
(E) legitimate subjects for literature and to portray them
80. Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan,
the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the
Nile delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates.
(A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations
(B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations
(C) that flourished at the same time those had
(D) flourishing at the same time as those did
(E) flourishing at the same time as those were
81. In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average
thirty-year-old male's income; and forty-four percent in 1984.
(A) income; and forty-four percent in 1984
(B) income; in 1984 the figure was forty-four percent
26
(C) income, and in 1984 forty-four percent
(D) income, forty-four percent in 1984 was the figure
(E) income that rose to forty-four percent in 1984
82. In contrast to large steel plants that take iron ore through all the steps needed to produce
several different kinds of steel, processing steel scrap into a specialized group of
products has enabled small mills to put capital into new technology and remain
economically viable.
(A) processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills
to put capital into new technology and remain
(B) processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small mills
to put capital into new technology, remaining
(C) the processing of steel scrap into a specialized group of products has enabled small
mills to put capital into new technology, remaining
(D) small mills, by processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products, have
been able to put capital into new technology and remain
(E) small mills, by processing steel scrap into a specialized group of products, have
been able to put capital into new technology and remained
83. Any medical test will sometimes fail to detect a condition when it is present and indicate
that there is one when it is not.
(A) a condition when it is present and indicate that there is one
(B) when a condition is present and indicate that there is one
(C) a condition when it is present and indicate that it is present
(D) when a condition is present and indicate its presence
(E) the presence of a condition when it is there and indicate its presence
84. One legacy of Madison Avenue's recent campaign to appeal to people fifty years old and
over is the realization that as a person ages. their concerns change as well.
(A) the realization that as a person ages, their
(B) the realization that as people age, their
(C) to realize that when a person ages, his or her
(D) to realize that when people age, their
(E) realizing that as people age, their
85. Out of America's fascination with all things antique have grown a market for bygone styles
of furniture and fixtures that are bringing back the chaise lounge, the overstuffed sofa,
and the claw-footed bathtub.
(A) things antique have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that
are bringing
(B) things antique has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that is
bringing
(C) things that are antiques has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and
fixtures that bring
(D) antique things have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that
are bringing
(E) antique things has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that
bring
27
86. Having the right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World
War. Horace Pippin, a Black American painter, worked by holding the brush in his right
hand and guiding its movements with his left
(A) Having the right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First
World War
(B) In spite of his right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First
World War
(C) Because there had been a sniper's bullet during the First World War that crippled his
right hand and arm
(D) The right hand and arm being crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War
(E) His right hand and arm crippled by a sniper's bullet during the First World War
87. Beyond the immediate cash flow crisis that the museum faces, its survival depends on if it
can broaden its membership and leave its cramped quarters for a site where it can store
and exhibit its more than 12,000 artifacts.
(A) if it can broaden its membership and leave
(B) whether it can broaden its membership and leave
(C) whether or not it has the capability to broaden its membership and can leave
(D) its ability for broadening its membership and leaving
(E) the ability for it to broaden its membership and leave
88. The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture portrait, the
features of which are so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an "artificial
face."
(A) so unrealistic as to constitute
(B) so unrealistic they constituted
(C) so unrealistic that they have constituted
(D) unrealistic enough so that they constitute
(E) unrealistic enough so as to constitute
89. A recent national study of the public schools shows that there are now one
microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many than there were four years
ago.
(A) there are now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many
than there were
(B) there is now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many than
there were
(C) there is now one microcomputer for every thirty-two pupils, four times as many as
there were
(D) every thirty-two pupils now have one microcomputer, four times as many than there
were
(E) every thirty-two pupils now has one microcomputer, four times as many as
28
90. Since 1986, when the Department of Labor began to allow investment officers' fees to be
based on how the funds they manage perform, several corporations began paying their
investment advisers a small basic fee, with a contract promising higher fees if the
managers perform well.
(A) investment officers' fees to be based on how the funds they manage perform,
several corporations began
(B) investment officers' fees to be based on the performance of the funds they manage,
several corporations began
(C) that fees of investment officers be based on how the funds they manage perform,
several corporations have begun
(D) fees of investment officers to be based on the performance of the funds they
manage, several corporations have begun
(E) that investment officers' fees be based on the performance of the funds they
manage, several corporations began
91. Like many self-taught artists, Perle Hessing did not begin to paint until she was well into
middle age.
(A) Like
(B) As have
(C) Just as with
(D) Just like
(E) As did
92. Never before had taxpayers confronted so many changes at once as they had in the Tax
Reform Act of 1986.
(A) so many changes at once as they had in
(B) at once as many changes as
(C) at once as many changes that there were with
(D) as many changes at once as they confronted in
(E) so many changes at once that confronted them in
93. It is well known in the supermarket industry that how items are placed on shelves and the
frequency of inventory turnovers can be crucial to profits.
(A) the frequency of inventory turnovers can be
(B) the frequency of inventory turnovers is often
(C) the frequency with which the inventory turns over is often
(D) how frequently is the inventory turned over are often
(E) how frequently the inventory turns over can be
94. The psychologist William James believed that facial expressions not only provide a visible
sign of an emotion, actually contributing to the feeling itself.
(A) emotion, actually contributing to the feeling itself
(B) emotion but also actually contributing to the feeling itself
(C) emotion but also actually contribute to the feeling itself
29
(D) emotion; they also actually contribute to the feeling of it
(E) emotion; the feeling itself is also actually contributed to by them
95. Along with the drop in producer prices announced yesterday, the strong retail sales
figures released today seem like it is indicative that the economy, although growing slowly,
is not nearing a recession.
(A) like it is indicative that
(B) as if to indicate
(C) to indicate that
(D) indicative of
(E) like an indication of
96. The National Transportation Safety Board has recommended the use of fail-safe
mechanisms on airliner cargo door latches assuring the doors are properly closed before
takeoff and to prevent them from popping open in flight.
(A) assuring the doors are properly closed
(B) for the assurance of proper closing
(C) assuring proper closure
(D) to assure closing the doors properly
(E) to assure that the doors are properly closed
97. Iguanas have been an important food source in Latin America since prehistoric times,
and it is still prized as a game animal by the campcsinos, who typically cook the meat in a
heavily spiced stew.
(A) it is still prized as a game animal
(B) it is still prized as game animals
(C) they are still prized as game animals
(D) they are still prized as being a game animal
(E) being still prized as a game animal
98. The financial crash of October 1987 demonstrated that the world's capital markets are
integrated more closely than never before and events in one part of the global village
may be transmitted to the rest of the village--almost instantaneously.
(A) integrated more closely than never before and
(B) closely integrated more than ever before so
(C) more closely integrated as never before while
(D) more closely integrated than ever before and that
(E) more than ever before closely integrated as
99. New theories propose that catastrophic impacts of asteroids and comets may have
caused reversals in the Earth's magnetic field, the onset of ice ages, splitting apart
continents 80 million years ago, and great volcanic eruptions.
(A) splitting apart continents
(B) the splitting apart of continents
30
(C) split apart continents
(D) continents split apart
(E) continents that were split apart
100. Wisconsin, Illinois, Florida, and Minnesota have begun to enforce statewide bans
prohibiting landfills to accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings.
(A) prohibiting landfills to accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings
(B) prohibiting that landfills accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings
(C) prohibiting landfills from accepting leaves, brush, and grass clippings
(D) that leaves, brush, and grass clippings cannot be accepted in landfills
(E) that landfills cannot accept leaves, brush, and grass clippings
101. Even though the direct costs of malpractice disputes amounts to a sum lower than one
percent of the $541 billion the nation spent on health care last year, doctors say fear of
lawsuits plays a major role in health-care inflation.
(A) amounts to a sum lower
(B) amounts to less
(C) amounted to less
(D) amounted to lower
(E) amounted to a lower sum
102. Except for a concert performance that the composer himself staged in 1911, Scott
Joplin's ragtime opera Treemonisha was not produced until 1972, sixty-one years after its
completion.
(A) Except for a concert performance that the composer himself staged
(B) Except for a concert performance with the composer himself staging it
(C) Besides a concert performance being staged by the composer himself
(D) Excepting a concert performance that the composer himself staged
(E) With the exception of a concert performance with the staging done by the composer
himself
103. Students in the metropolitan school district lack math skills to such a large degree as to
make it difficult to absorb them into a city economy becoming ever more dependent on
information-based industries.
(A) lack math skills to such a large degree as to make it difficult to absorb them into a
city economy becoming
(B) lack math skills to a large enough degree that they will be difficult to absorb into a
city's economy that becomes
(C) lack of math skills is so large as to be difficult to absorb them into a city's economy
that becomes
(D) are lacking so much in math skills as to be difficult to absorb into a city's economy
becoming
(E) are so lacking in math skills that it will be difficult to absorb them into a city economy
becoming
31
104. The diet of the ordinary Greek in classical times was largely vegetarian--vegetables, fresh
cheese, oatmeal, and meal cakes, and meat rarely.
(A) and meat rarely
(B) and meat was rare
(C) with meat as rare
(D) meat a rarity
(E) with meat as a rarity
105. An inventory equal to 90 days sales is as much as even the strongest businesses carry,
and then only as a way to anticipate higher prices or ensure against shortages.
(A) as much as even
(B) so much as even
(C) even so much as
(D) even as much that
(E) even so much that
106. The decision by one of the nation's largest banks to admit to $3 billion in potential losses
on foreign loans could mean less lending by commercial banks to developing countries
and increasing the pressure on multigovernment lenders to supply the funds.
(A) increasing the pressure
(B) the increasing pressure
(C) increased pressure
(D) the pressure increased
(E) the pressure increasing
107. Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing density, allows for
more open space in areas where little water or services exist.
(A) little water or services exist
(B) little water or services exists
(C) few services and little water exists
(D) there is little water or services available
(E) there are few services and little available water
108. Reporting that one of its many problems had been the recent extended sales slump in
women's apparel, the seven-store retailer said it would start a three-month liquidation sale
in all of its stores.
(A) its many problems had been the recent
(B) its many problems has been the recently
(C) its many problems is the recently
(D) their many problems is the recent
(E) their many problems had been the recent
32
109. Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private
employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring
comparable skill that are usually held by men.
(A) that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring
comparable skill that are
(B) that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring
comparable skills
(C) to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that
are
(D) to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is
one demanding comparable skills
(E) to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding
comparable skills
110. It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial
output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.
(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax
revenues is at least $20 billion a year
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because
of lost industrial output and tax revenues
(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output
and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the
United States of illiteracy
(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a
year because of illiteracy
111. Egyptians are credited as having pioneered embalming methods as long ago as 2650
B.C.
(A) as having
(B) with having
(C) to have
(D) as the ones who
(E) for being the ones who
112. Domestic automobile manufacturers have invested millions of dollars into research to
develop cars more gasoline-efficient even than presently on the road.
(A) into research to develop cars more gasoline-efficient even than presently on the
road
(B) into research for developing even more gasoline-efficient cars on the road than at
present
(C) for research for cars to be developed that are more gasoline-efficient even than
presently the road
33
(D) in research to develop cars even more gasoline-efficient than those at present on
the road
(E) in research for developing cars that are even more gasoline-efficient than presently
on the road
113. Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and saw monkeys sleeping
on the branches. whose arms and legs hang like socks on a clothesline.
(A) saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, whose arms and legs hang
(B) saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, whose arms and legs were hanging
(C) saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging
(D) seen monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging
(E) seen monkeys sleeping on the branches, whose arms and legs have hung
114. From the bark of the paper birch tree the Menomini crafted a canoe about twenty feet
long and two feet wide, with small ribs and rails of cedar, which could carry four persons
or eight hundred pounds of baggage so light that a person could easily portage it around
impeding rapids.
(A) baggage so light
(B) baggage being so light
(C) baggage, yet being so light
(D) baggage, and so light
(E) baggage yet was so light
115. From the time of its defeat by the Germans in 1940 until its liberation in 1944, France was
a bitter and divided country; a kind of civil war raged in the Vichy government between
those who wanted to collaborate with the Nazis with those who opposed them.
(A) between those who wanted to collaborate with the Nazis with those who opposed
(B) between those who wanted to collaborate with the Nazis and those who opposed
(C) between those wanting to collaborate with the Nazis with those opposing
(D) among those who wanted to collaborate with the Nazis and those who opposed
(E) among those wanting to collaborate with the Nazis with those opposing
116. Those who come to church with a predisposition to religious belief will be happy in an
auditorium or even a storefront, and there is no doubt that religion is sometimes better
served by adapted spaces of this kind instead of by some of the buildings actually
designed for it.
(A) adapted spaces of this kind instead of by some of the buildings actually designed for
it
(B) adapted spaces like these rather than some of the buildings actually designed for
them
(C) these adapted spaces instead of by some of the buildings actually designed for it
(D) such adapted spaces rather than by some of the buildings actually designed for
them
(E) such adapted spaces than by some of the buildings actually designed for it
34
117. A firm that specializes in the analysis of handwriting claims from a one-page writing
sample that it can assess more than three hundred personality traits, including
enthusiasm, imagination, and ambition.
(A) from a one-page writing sample that it can assess.
(B) from a one-page writing sample it has the ability of assessing
(C) the ability, from a one-page writing sample, of assessing
(D) to be able, from a one-page writing sample, to assess
(E) being able to assess, from a one-page writing sample,
1l8. The question of whether to divest themselves of stock in companies that do business in
South Africa is particularly troublesome for the nation's 116 private Black colleges
because their economic bases are often more fragile than most predominantly White
colleges.
(A) than
(B) than those of
(C) than is so of
(D) compared to
(E) compared to those of
119. Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly
among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which
already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year.
(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a
cost to business of
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost
business
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with
business costs of
(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already
costing business
(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs
business
120. The Parthenon was a church from 1204 until 1456, when Athens was taken by General
Mohammed the Conqueror, the Turkish sultan, who established a mosque in the building
and used the Acropolis as a fortress.
(A) who established a mosque in the building and used the Acropolis as
(B) who, establishing a mosque in the building, used the Acropolis like
(C) who, when he had established a mosque in the building, used the Acropolis like
(D) who had established a mosque in the building, using the Acropolis to be
(E) establishing a mosque in the building and using the Acropolis as
35
121. The concept of the grand jury dates from the twelfth -century, when Henry II of England
ordered panels of common citizens should prepare lists of who were their communities'
suspected criminals.
(A) should prepare lists of who were their communities' suspected criminals
(B) would do the preparation of lists of their communities' suspected criminals
(C) preparing lists of suspected criminals in their communities
(D) the preparing of a list of suspected criminals in their communities
(E) to prepare lists of suspected criminals in their communities
122. Chinese, the most ancient of living writing systems, consists of tens of thousands of
ideographic characters, each character miniature calligraphic composition inside its own
square frame.
(A) each character a miniature calligraphic composition inside its
(B) all the characters a miniature calligraphic ; composition inside their
(C) all the characters a miniature calligraphic composition inside its
(D) every character a miniature calligraphic composition inside their
(E) each character a miniature calligraphic composition inside their
123. In developing new facilities for the incineration of solid wastes, we must avoid the danger
of shifting environmental problems from landfills polluting the water to polluting the air with
incinerators.
(A) landfills polluting the water to polluting the air with incinerators
(B) landfills polluting the water to the air being polluted with incinerators
(C) the pollution of water by landfills to the pollution of air by incinerators
(D) pollution of the water by landfills to incinerators that pollute the air
(E) water that is polluted by landfills to incinerators that pollute the air
124. During Roosevelt's years in office, Black Americans began voting for Democrats rather
than Republicans in national elections, but Black support for Democrats at the state and
local levels developed only after when civil rights legislation was supported by Harry
Truman.
(A) developed only after when civil rights legislation was supported by Harry Truman
(B) developed only after when Harry Truman supported civil rights legislation
(C) developed only after Harry Truman's support of civil rights legislation
(D) develops only at the time after the supporting of civil rights legislation by Harry
Truman
(E) developed only after there being Harry Truman's support of civil rights legislation
125. The winds that howl across the Great Plains not only blow away valuable topsoil, thereby
reducing the potential crop yield of a tract of land, and also damage or destroy young
plants.
(A) and also damage or destroy
(B) as well as damaging or destroying
(C) but they also cause damage or destroy
36
(D) but also damage or destroy
(E) but also causing damage or destroying
126. More than thirty years ago Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that
genes can "jump," as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.
(A) as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(B) like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(C) as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(D) like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(E) as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other one
127. In theory, international civil servants at the United Nations are prohibited from continuing
to draw salaries from their own governments; in practice, however, some governments
merely substitute living allowances for their employees' paychecks. assigned by them to
the United Nations.
(A) for their employees' paychecks, assigned by them
(B) for the paychecks of their employees who have been assigned
(C) for the paychecks of their employees, having been assigned
(D) in place of their employees' paychecks, for those of them assigned
(E) in place of the paychecks of their employees to have been assigned by them
128. New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the costly
requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high-yielding
varieties.
(A) requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier
high-yielding varieties
(B) requirements by earlier high-yielding varieties of application of commercial fertilizer
and irrigation
(C) requirements for application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of earlier
high-yielding varieties
(D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by earlier
high-yielding varieties
(E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by earlier
high-yielding varieties
129. In an effort to reduce their inventories, Italian vintners have cut prices; their wines have
been priced to sell. and they are.
(A) have been priced to sell, and they are
(B) are priced to sell, and they have
(C) are priced to sell, and they do
(D) are being priced to sell, and have
(E) had been priced to sell, and they have
37
130. In a 5-to-4 decision, the Supreme Court ruled that two upstate New York counties owed
restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians for the unlawful seizure of their ancestral
lands in the eighteenth century.
(A) that two upstate New York counties owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida
Indians for the unlawful seizure of
(B) that two upstate New York counties owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida
Indians because of their unlawful seizure of
(C) two upstate New York counties to owe restitution to three tribes of Oneida Indians
for their unlawful seizure of
(D) on two upstate New York counties that owed restitution to three tribes of Oneida
Indians because they unlawfully seized
(E) on the restitution that two upstate New York counties owed to three tribes of Oneida
Indians for the unlawful seizure of
131. The Commerce Department announced that the economy grew during the second
quarter at a 7.5 percent annual rate, while inflation eased when it might have been
expected for it to rise.
(A) it might have been expected for it to rise
(B) it might have been expected to rise
(C) it might have been expected that it should rise
(D) its rise might have been expected
(E) there might have been an expectation it would rise
132. According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching,
companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for
nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation's four-year
colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in
(D) as many as the enrollment of
(E) as many as are enrolled in
133. In Holland, a larger percentage of the gross national product is spent on defense of their
coasts from rising seas than is spent on military defense in the United States.
(A) In Holland, a larger percentage of the gross national product is spent on defense of
their coasts from rising seas than is spent on military defense in the United States.
(B) In Holland they spend a larger percentage of their gross national product on
defending their coasts from rising seas than the United States does on military
defense.
(C) A larger percentage of Holland's gross national product is spent on defending their
coasts from rising seas than the United States spends on military defense.
(D) Holland spends a larger percentage of its gross national product defending its
coasts from rising seas than the military defense spending of the United States.
38
(E) Holland spends a larger percentage of its gross national product on defending its
coasts from rising seas than the United States does on military defense.
134. Canadian scientists have calculated that one human being should be struck every nine
years by a meteorite, while each year sixteen buildings can be expected to sustain
damage from such objects.
(A) one human being should be struck every nine years by a meteorite
(B) a human being should be struck by a meteorite once in every nine years
(C) a meteorite will strike one human being once in every nine years
(D) every nine years a human being will be struck by a meteorite
(E) every nine years a human being should be struck by a meteorite
135. Intar, the oldest Hispanic theater company in New York, has moved away from the
Spanish classics and now it draws on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors
who live abroad and of those in the United States.
(A) now it draws on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors who live abroad
and of
(B) now draws on the works of contemporary Hispanic authors, both those who live
abroad and those who live
(C) it draws on the works of contemporary Hispanic authors now, both those living
abroad and who live
(D) draws now on the works both of contemporary Hispanic authors living abroad and
who are
(E) draws on the works now of both contemporary Hispanic authors living abroad and
those
136. Although schistosomiasis is not often fatal, it is so debilitating that it has become an
economic drain on many developing countries.
(A) it is so debilitating that it has become an economic
(B) it is of such debilitation, it has become an economical
(C) so debilitating is it as to become an economic
(D) such is its debilitation, it becomes an economical
(E) there is so much debilitation that it has become an economical
137. In 1982 the median income for married-couple families with a wage-earning wife was
$9,000 more than a family where the husband only was employed.
(A) a family where the husband only
(B) of a family where only the husband
(C) that for families in which only the husband
(D) a family in which only the husband
(E) those of families in which the husband only
138. Senator Lasker has proposed legislation requiring that employers should retain all older
workers indefinitely or show just cause for dismissal.
39
(A) that employers should retain all older workers
(B) that all older workers be retained by employers
(C) the retaining by employers of all older workers
(D) employers' retention of all older workers
(E) employers to retain all older workers
139. The extraordinary diary of William Lyon Mackenzie King, prime minister of Canada for
over twenty years, revealed that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic
guided in both public and private life by omens, messages received at seances, and signs
from heaven.
(A) that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic guided in both public and
(B) that this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and also guided both in
public as well as
(C) this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and that he was guided in
both public and
(D) this most bland and circumspect of men was a mystic and that he was guided in
both public as well as
(E) this most bland and circumspect of men to have been a mystic and that he guided
himself both in public as well as
140. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow
to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit
this spring.
(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season,
is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest
season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season,
are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
141. Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same, all
patients receiving hearts or other organs must take antirejection drugs for the rest of their
lives.
(A) Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same
(B) Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(C) Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic
endowment
(D) Aside from a transplant between identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(E) Other than transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the
same
40
142. In one of the most stunning reversals in the history of marketing, the Coca-Cola company
in July 1985 yielded to thousands of irate consumers demanding that it should bring back
the original Coke formula.
(A) demanding that it should
(B) demanding it to
(C) and their demand to
(D) who demanded that it
(E) who demanded it to
143. Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying
mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than
developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million
years ago.
(A) rather than developing independently from
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of
(D) instead of developing independently from
(E) instead of a development that was independent of
144. Efforts to equalize the funds available to school districts, a major goal of education
reformers and many states in the 1970's, has not significantly reduced the gaps existing
between the richest and poorest districts.
(A) has not significantly reduced the gaps existing
(B) has not been significant in reducing the gap that exists
(C) has not made a significant reduction in the gap that exists
(D) have not significantly reduced the gap that exists
(E) have not been significant in a reduction of the gaps existing
145. Most state constitutions now mandate that the state budget be balanced each year.
(A) mandate that the state budget be balanced
(B) mandate the state budget to be balanced
(C) mandate that the state budget will be balanced
(D) have a mandate for a balanced state budget
(E) have a mandate to balance the state budget
146. A patient accusing a doctor of malpractice will find it difficult to prove damage if there is a
lack of some other doctor to testify about proper medical procedures.
(A) if there is a lack of some other doctor to testify
(B) unless there will be another doctor to testify
(C) without another doctor's testimony
(D) should there be no testimony from some other doctor
(E) lacking another doctor to testify
41
147. Samuel Sewall viewed marriage, as other seventeenth-century colonists, like a property
arrangement rather than an emotional bond based on romantic love.
(A) Samuel Sewall viewed marriage, as other seventeenth-century colonists, like a
property arrangement rather than
(B) As did other seventeenth-century colonists, Samuel Sewall viewed marriage to be a
property arrangement rather than viewing it as
(C) Samuel Sewall viewed marriage to be a property arrangement, like other
seventeenth-century colonists, rather than viewing it as
(D) Marriage to Samuel Sewall, like other seventeenth-century colonists, was viewed as
a property arrangement rather than
(E) Samuel Sewall, like other seventeenth-century colonists, viewed marriage as a
property arrangement rather than
148. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency is required
either to approve individual state plans for controlling the discharge of wastes into
underground water or that they enforce their own plan for states without adequate
regulations.
(A) that they enforce their
(B) for enforcing their
(C) they should enforce their
(D) it should enforce its
(E) to enforce its
149. Last year, land values in most parts of the pinelands rose almost so fast. and in some
parts even faster than what they did outside the pinelands.
(A) so fast, and in some parts even faster than what they did
(B) so fast, and in some parts even faster than, those
(C) as fast, and in some parts even faster than, those
(D) as fast as, and in some parts even faster than, those
(E) as fast as, and in some parts even faster than what they did
150. In the mid-1960's a newly installed radar warning system mistook the rising of the moon
as a massive missile attack by the Soviets.
(A) rising of the moon as a massive missile attack by the Soviets
(B) rising of the moon for a massive Soviet missile attack
(C) moon rising to a massive missile attack by the Soviets
(D) moon as it was rising for a massive Soviet missile attack
(E) rise of the moon as a massive Soviet missile attack
151. If Dr. Wade was right, any apparent connection of the eating of highly processed foods
and excelling at sports is purely coincidental.
(A) If Dr. Wade was right, any apparent connection of the eating of
(B) Should Dr. Wade be right, any apparent connection of eating
(C) If Dr. Wade is right, any connection that is apparent between eating of
42
(D) If Dr. Wade is right, any apparent connection between eating
(E) Should Dr. Wade have been right, any connection apparent between eating
152. When the technique known as gene-splicing was invented in the early 1970's, it was
feared that scientists might inadvertently create an "Andromeda strain," a microbe never
before seen on Earth that might escape from the laboratory and it would kill vast numbers
of humans who would have no natural defenses against it.
(A) it would kill vast numbers of humans who would have no natural defenses against it
(B) it might kill vast numbers of humans with no natural defenses against it
(C) kill vast numbers of humans who would have no natural defenses against it
(D) kill vast numbers of humans who have no natural defenses against them
(E) kill vast numbers of humans with no natural defenses against them
153. A recording system was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval Office
that even Theodore C. Sorensen, the White House counsel, did not know it existed.
(A) A recording system was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval
Office that
(B) So secret was a recording system installation and operation in the Kennedy Oval
Office
(C) It was so secret that a recording system was installed and operated in the Kennedy
Oval Office
(D) A recording system that was so secretly installed and operated in the Kennedy Oval
Office
(E) Installed and operated so secretly in the Kennedy Oval Office was a recording
system that
154. In 1791 Robert Carter III, one of the wealthiest plantation owners in Virginia, stunned his
family, friends, and neighbors by filing a deed of emancipation, setting free the more than
500 slaves who were legally considered his property.
(A) setting free the more than 500 slaves who were legally considered
(B) setting free more than the 500 slaves legally considered as
(C) and set free more than 500 slaves, who were legally considered as
(D) and set free more than the 500 slaves who were legally considered
(E) and he set free the more than 500 slaves who were legally considered as
155. Federal authorities involved in the investigation have found the local witnesses are
difficult to locate, reticent. and are suspicious of strangers.
(A) the local witnesses are difficult to locate, reticent, and are
(B) local witnesses to be difficult to locate, reticent, and are
(C) that local witnesses are difficult to locate, reticent, and
(D) local witnesses are difficult to locate and reticent, and they are
(E) that local witnesses are difficult to locate and reticent, and they are
156. Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but financially strained
townships point out that dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads.
(A) dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads
(B) dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do
(C) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do
43
(D) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads
(E) to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads
157. A number of linguists contend that all of the thousands of languages spoken by the
world's five billion people can be traced back to a common root language.
(A) that all of the thousands of languages spoken by the world's five billion people can
be traced
(B) that the world's five billion people speak thousands of languages of which all can be
traced
(C) the world's five billion people speak thousands of languages which are all traceable
(D) all of the thousands of languages spoken by the world's five billion people to be
traceable
(E) the ability to trace all of the thousands of languages that are spoken by the world's
five billion people
158. With only 5 percent of the world's population, United States citizens consume 28 percent
of its nonrenewable resources, drive more than one-third of its automobiles, and use 21
times more water per capita than Europeans do.
(A) With
(B) As
(C) Being
(D) Despite having
(E) Although accounting for
159. While depressed property values can hurt some large investors, they are potentially
devastating for home-owners. whose equity--in many cases representing a life's
savings--can plunge or even disappear.
(A) they are potentially devastating for homeowners, whose
(B) they can potentially devastate homeowners in that their
(C) for homeowners they are potentially devastating, because their
(D) for homeowners, it is potentially devastating in that their
(E) it can potentially devastate homeowners, whose
160. While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by
attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing
software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the
prosecution of those who copy software illegally.
(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still
others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating,
and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and
still others call
44
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and
still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still
others are calling
161. A wildlife expert predicts that the reintroduction of the caribou into northern Minnesota
would tail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more numerous than
one wolf for every 39 square miles.
(A) would fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more numerous
than
(B) would fail provided the density of the timber wolf population in that region is more
than
(C) should fail if the timber wolf density in that region was greater than
(D) will fail if the density of the timber wolf population in that region is greater than
(E) will fail if the timber wolf density in that region were more numerous than
162. Concerned at the increase in accident fatalities,
Tennessee adopted a child-passenger protection law requiring the parents of children
under four years of age to be restrained in a child safety seat.
(A) the parents of children under four years of age to be restrained in a child safety seat
(B) the restraint of parents of children under four years of age in a child safety seat
(C) that parents restrain children under four years of age in a child safety seat
(D) that children be restrained under four years of age in a child safety seat by their
parents
(E) children to be restrained under four years of age by their parents in a child safety
seat
163. Found throughout Central and South America, sloths hang from trees by long rubbery
limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day. moving infrequently enough that two species of
algae grow on its coat and between its toes.
(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and sleep fifteen hours a day, moving
infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs, they sleep fifteen hours a day, and
with such infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from trees, sleep fifteen hours a day, and
move so infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeping fifteen hours a day
and moving so infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery limbs, sleeps fifteen hours a day, and
it moves infrequently enough
164. The commission proposed that funding for the park's development, which could be open
to the public early next year. is obtained through a local bond issue.
45
(A) that funding for the park's development, which could be open to the public early next
year, is
(B) that funding for development of the park, which could be open to the public early
next year, be
(C) funding for the development of the park, perhaps open to the public early next year,
to be
(D) funds for the park's development, perhaps open to the public early next year, be
(E) development funding for the park, which could be open to the public early next year,
is to be
165. At Shiprock, New Mexico, a perennially powerful girls' high school basketball team has
become a path to college for some and a source of pride for a community where the
household incomes of 49 percent of them are below the poverty level.
(A) where the household incomes of 49 percent of them are
(B) where they have 49 percent of the household incomes
(C) where 49 percent of the household incomes are
(D) which has 49 percent of the household incomes
(E) in which 49 percent of them have household incomes
166. The prime lending rate is a key rate in the economy: not only are the interest rates on
most loans to small and medium-sized businesses tied to the prime, but also on a
growing number of consumer loans, including home equity loans.
(A) not only are the interest rates on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses
tied to the prime, but also on
(B) tied to the prime are the interest rates not only on most loans to small and
medium-sized businesses, but also on
(C) the interest rates not only on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses are
tied to the prime, but also
(D) not only the interest rates on most loans to small and medium-sized businesses are
tied to the prime, but also on
(E) the interest rates are tied to the prime, not only on most loans to small and
medium-sized businesses, but also
167. Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so were probably
without language, a shortcoming that may explain why they were supplanted by our own
species.
(A) Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes
(B) Neanderthals had a vocal tract resembling an ape's
(C) The vocal tracts of Neanderthals resembled an ape's
(D) The Neanderthal's vocal tracts resembled the apes'
(E) The vocal tracts of the Neanderthals resembled those of the apes
168. Today, because of improvements in agricultural technology, the same amount of acreage
produces double the apples that it has in 1910.
46
(A) double the apples that it has
(B) twice as many apples as it did
(C) as much as twice the apples it has
(D) two times as many apples as there were
(E) a doubling of the apples that it did
169. Seismologists studying the earthquake that struck northern California in October 1989 are
still investigating some of its mysteries: the unexpected power of the seismic waves, the
upward thrust that threw one man straight into the air. and the strange electromagnetic
signals detected hours before the temblor.
(A) the upward thrust that threw one man straight into the air, and the strange
electromagnetic signals detected hours before the temblor
(B) the upward thrust that threw one man straight into the air, and strange
electromagnetic signals were detected hours before the temblor
(C) the upward thrust threw one man straight into the air, and hours before the temblor
strange electromagnetic signals were detected
(D) one man was thrown straight into the air by the upward thrust, and hours before the
temblor strange electromagnetic signals were detected
(E) one man who was thrown straight into the air by the upward thrust, and strange
electromagnetic signals that were detected hours before the temblor
170. Although early soap operas were first aired on evening radio in the 1920's, they had
moved to the daytime hours of the 1930's when the evening schedule became
crowded with comedians and variety shows.
(A) were first aired on evening radio in the 1920's, they had moved to the daytime hours
of the 1930's
(B) were first aired on evening radio in the 1920's, they were moved to the daytime
hours in the 1930's
(C) were aired first on evening radio in the 1920's, moving to the daytime hours in the
1930's
(D) were aired first in the evening on 1920's radio, they moved to the daytime hours of
the 1930's
(E) aired on evening radio first in the 1920's, they were moved to the 1930's in the
daytime hours
171. In 1527 King Henry VIII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so
as to marry Anne Boleyn.
(A) so as to marry
(B) and so could be married to
(C) to be married to
(D) so that he could marry
(E) in order that he would marry
47
172. The energy source on Voyager 2 is not a nuclear reactor, in which atoms are actively
broken apart; rather a kind of nuclear battery that uses natural radioactive decay to
produce power.
(A) apart; rather
(B) apart, but rather
(C) apart, but rather that of
(D) apart, but that of
(E) apart; it is that of
173. Joan of Arc, a young Frenchwoman who claimed to be divinely inspired, turned the tide of
English victories in her country by liberating the city of Orleans and she persuaded
Charles VII of France to claim his throne.
(A) she persuaded Charles VII of France to claim his throne
(B) persuaded Charles VII of France in claiming his throne
(C) persuading that the throne be claimed by Charles VII of France
(D) persuaded Charles VII of France to claim his throne
(E) persuading that Charles VII of France should claim the throne
174. A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
were published, reveals that Twain provided financial assistance to one of the first Black
students at Yale Law School.
(A) A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year as The Adventures of Huckleberry
Finn were published,
(B) A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year of publication as The Adventures of
Huckleberry Finn,
(C) A letter by Mark Twain, written in the same year that The Adventures of Huckleberry
Finn was published,
(D) Mark Twain wrote a letter in the same year as he published The Adventures of
Huckleberry Finn that
(E) Mark Twain wrote a letter in the same year of publication as The Adventures of
Huckleberry Finn that
175. Two new studies indicate that many people become obese more due to the fact that their
bodies burn calories too slowly than overeating.
(A) due to the fact that their bodies burn calories too slowly than overeating
(B) due to their bodies burning calories too slowly than to eating too much
(C) because their bodies bum calories too slowly than that they are overeaters
(D) because their bodies bum calories too slowly than because they eat too much
(E) because of their bodies burning calories too slowly than because of their eating too
much
176. As a result of the ground-breaking work of Barbara McClintock, many scientists now
believe that all of the information encoded in 50.000 to 100.000 of the different genes
found in a human cell are contained in merely three percent of the cell's DNA.
48
(A) 50,000 to 100,000 of the different genes found in a human cell are contained in
merely
(B) 50,000 to 100,000 of the human cell's different genes are contained in a mere
(C) the 50,000 to 100,000 different genes found in human cells are contained in merely
(D) 50,000 to 100,000 of human cells' different genes is contained in merely
(E) the 50,000 to 100,000 different genes found in a human cell is contained in a mere
177. So poorly educated and trained are many young recruits to the United States work force
that many business executives fear this country will lose its economic preeminence.
(A) So poorly educated and trained are many young recruits to the United States work
force that
(B) As poorly educated and trained as many young recruits to the United States work
force are,
(C) Because of many young recruits to the United States work force who are so poorly
educated and trained,
(D) That many young recruits to the United States work force are so poorly educated
and trained is why
(E) Many young recruits to the United States work force who are so poorly educated and
trained explains why
178. In the last few years, the number of convicted criminals given community service
sentences. which allow the criminals to remain unconfined while they perform specific
jobs benefiting the public, have risen dramatically.
(A) sentences, which allow the criminals to remain unconfined while they perform
specific jobs benefiting the public, have
(B) sentences, performing specific jobs that benefit the public while being allowed to
remain unconfined, have
(C) sentences, performing specific jobs beneficial to the public while they are allowed to
remain unconfined, have
(D) sentences which allow them to remain unconfined in their performing of specific
jobs beneficial to the public has
(E) sentences allowing them to remain unconfined while performing specific jobs that
179. During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as
"wilderness" by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the
land. were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even
death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the
rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to
help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to
rescue
49
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land. Native Americans helped the
rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue
180. Quasars are so distant that their light has taken billions of years to reach the Earth;
consequently, we see them as they were during the formation of the universe.
(A) we see them as they were during
(B) we see them as they had been during
(C) we see them as if during
(D) they appear to us as they did in
(E) they appear to us as though in
181. Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in
the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand,
such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms' survival
182. Consumers may not think of household cleaning products to be hazardous substances,
but many of them can be harmful to health, especially if they are used improperly.
(A) Consumers may not think of household cleaning products to be
(B) Consumers may not think of household cleaning products being
(C) A consumer may not think of their household cleaning products being
(D) A consumer may not think of household cleaning products as
(E) Household cleaning products may not be thought of, by consumers, as
183. Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered chalice, which dates from the
eighth century, was probably buried to keep from being stolen by invaders.
(A) to keep from
(B) to keep it from
(C) to avoid
(D) in order that it would avoid
(E) in order to keep from
184. As measured by the Commerce Department, corporate profits peaked in the fourth
quarter of 1988 and have slipped since then, as many companies have been unable to
pass on higher
(A) and have slipped since then, as many companies have been unable to pass on
higher costs
(B) and have slipped since then, the reason being because many companies have been
unable to pass on higher costs
50
(C) and slipped since then, many companies being unable to pass on higher costs
(D) but, many companies unable to pass on higher costs, they have slipped since
then
(E) yet are slipping since then, because many companies were unable to pass on
higher costs
185. The recent surge in the number of airplane flights has clogged the nation's air-traffic
control system, to lead to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts fears among
some officials that safety is being compromised.
(A) to lead to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts
(B) leading to 55 percent more delay at airports and prompting
(C) to lead to a 55 percent increase in delay at airports and prompt
(D) to lead to an increase of 55 percent in delays at airports, and prompted
(E) leading to a 55-percent increase in delays at airports and prompting
186. Judge Bonham denied a motion to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of
each day instead of to confine them to a hotel.
(A) to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day instead of to confine
them to
(B) that would have allowed members of the jury to go home at the end of each day
instead of confined to
(C) under which members of the jury are allowed to go home at the end of each day
instead of confining them in
(D) that would allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day rather than
confinement in
(E) to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day rather than be confined
to
187. In one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War, fought at Sharpsburg, Maryland, on
September 17, 1862, four times as many Americans were killed as would later be killed
on the beaches of Normandy during D-Day.
(A) Americans were killed as
(B) Americans were killed than
(C) Americans were killed than those who
(D) more Americans were killed as there
(E) more Americans were killed as those who
188. As a result of medical advances, many people that might at one time have died as
children of such infections as diphtheria, pneumonia, or rheumatic fever now live well
into old age.
(A) that might at one time have died as children
(B) who might once have died in childhood
(C) that as children might once have died
(D) who in childhood might have at one time died
51
(E) who, when they were children, might at one time have died
189. Proponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to make computers that can
understand English and other human languages, recognize objects, and reason as an
expert does-computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding
whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these.
(A) as an expert does--computers that will be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns,
deciding whether to authorize a loan, or other purposes such as these
(B) as an expert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing equipment
breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan
(C) like an expert--computers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing
equipment breakdowns or deciding whether to authorize a loan
(D) like an expert, the use of which would be for purposes like the diagnosis of
equipment breakdowns or the decision whether or not a loan should be authorized
(E) like an expert, to be used to diagnose equipment breakdowns, deciding whether to
authorize a loan or not, or the like
190. Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism
were the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica. the Fulani in
Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and the victory of the Usuli "mujtahids" in Shiite Iran
and Iraq.
(A) Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism
were the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in
Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and
(B) Manifestations of Islamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism
were shown in the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani
in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and also
(C) In the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of Islamic political militancy
were the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, of the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in
Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and
(D) In the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of Islamic political militancy
were shown in the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani
in Nigeria, the Mahdi in the Sudan, and
(E) In the first period of religious reformism, Islamic political militancy was manifested in
the rise of the Wahhabis in Arabia, the Sanusi in Cyrenaica, the Fulani in Nigeria, and
the Mahdi in the Sudan, and in
191. Lawmakers are examining measures that would require banks to disclose all fees and
account requirements in writing, provide free cashing of government checks, and to
create basic savings accounts to carry minimal fees and require minimal initial deposits.
(A) provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts to
carry
(B) provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts
carrying
52
(C) to provide free cashing of government checks, and creating basic savings accounts
that carry
(D) to provide free cashing of government checks, creating basic savings accounts to
carry
(E) to provide free cashing of government checks, and to create basic savings accounts
that carry
192. Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who
migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which
has been added English. Spanish. and Italian words.
(A) to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it
(E) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added
193. Unlike the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long.
the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka are concentrated in the monsoon months, June to
September, and the skies are generally clear for the rest of the year.
(A) Unlike the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year
long, the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka
(B) Unlike the United States farmers who can usually depend on rain or snow all year
long, the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka
(C) Unlike those of the United States, where farmers can usually depend on rain or
snow all year long, most parts of Sri Lanka's rains
(D) In comparison with the United States, whose farmers can usually depend on rain or
snow all year long, the rains in most parts of Sri Lanka
(E) In the United States, farmers can usually depend on rain or snow all year long, but in
most parts of Sri Lanka the rains
194. Presenters at the seminar, one who is blind, will demonstrate adaptive equipment that
allows visually impaired people to use computers.
(A) one who
(B) one of them who
(C) and one of them who
(D) one of whom
(E) one of which
195. Dr. Tonegawa won the Nobel Prize for discovering how the body can constantly change
its genes to fashion a seeming unlimited number of antibodies. each specifically targeted
at an invading microbe or foreign substance.
(A) seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each specifically targeted at
(B) seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted specifically to
(C) seeming unlimited number of antibodies, all specifically targeted at
53
(D) seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, all of them targeted specifically to
(E) seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted specifically at
196. It is possible that Native Americans originally have migrated to the Western Hemisphere
over a bridge of land that once existed between Siberia and Alaska.
(A) have migrated to the Western Hemisphere over a bridge of land that once existed
(B) were migrating to the Western Hemisphere over a bridge of land that existed once
(C) migrated over a bridge of land to the Western Hemisphere that once existed
(D) migrated to the Western Hemisphere over a bridge of land that once existed
(E) were migrating to the Western Hemisphere over a bridge of land existing once
197. In the fall of 1985, only 10 percent of the women entering college planned to major in
education, while 28 percent chose business, making it the most popular major for
women as well as for men.
(A) as well as for men
(B) as well as the men
(C) and men too
(D) and men as well
(E) and also men
198. Although Napoleon's army entered Russia with far more supplies than they had in their
previous campaigns, it had provisions for only twenty-four days.
(A) they had in their previous campaigns
(B) their previous campaigns had had
(C) they had for any previous campaign
(D) in their previous campaigns
(E) for any previous campaign
199. Because the Earth's crust is more solid there and thus better able to transmit shock
waves, an earthquake of a given magnitude typically devastates an area 100 times
greater in the eastern United States than it does in the West.
(A) of a given magnitude typically devastates an area 100 times greater in the eastern
United States than it does in the West
(B) of a given magnitude will typically devastate 100 times the area if it occurs in the
eastern United States instead of the West
(C) will typically devastate 100 times the area in the eastern United States than one of
comparable magnitude occurring in the West
(D) in the eastern United States will typically devastate an area 100 times greater than
will a quake of comparable magnitude occurring in the West
(E) that occurs in the eastern United States will typically devastate 100 times more area
than if it occurred with comparable magnitude in the West
200. Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place: one
reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of
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pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils
that are free of such chemicals.
(A) Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; one
reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of
pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use
than in soils that are free of such chemicals.
(B) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason that certain pesticides can become
ineffective is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of
pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use
than in soils that are free of such chemicals.
(C) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason certain pesticides can become
ineffective is suggested by the finding that much larger populations of
pesticide-degrading microbes are found in soils with a relatively long history of
pesticide use than those that are free of such chemicals.
(D) The finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes
in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such
chemicals is suggestive of one reason, if used repeatedly in the same place, certain
pesticides can become ineffective.
(E) The finding of much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with
a relatively long history of pesticide use than in those that are free of such chemicals
suggests one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in
the same place.
201. One view of the economy contends that a large drop in oil prices should eventually lead
to lowering interest rates, as well as lowering fears about inflation, a rally in stocks and
bonds, and a weakening of the dollar.
(A) lowering interest rates, as well as lowering fears about inflation,
(B) a lowering of interest rates and of fears about inflation,
(C) a lowering of interest rates, along with fears about inflation,
(D) interest rates being lowered, along with fears about inflation,
(E) interest rates and fears about inflation being lowered, with
202. After the Civil War, contemporaries of Harriet Tubman's maintained that she has all of the
qualities of a great leader: coolness in the face of danger, an excellent sense of strategy,
and an ability to plan in minute detail.
(A) Tubman's maintained that she has
(B) Tubman's maintain that she had
(C) Tubman's have maintained that she had
(D) Tubman maintained that she had
(E) Tubman had maintained that she has
203. From 1982 to 1987 sales of new small boats increased between five and ten percent
annually.
55
(A) From 1982 to 1987 sales of new small boats increased between five and ten percent
annually.
(B) Five to ten percent is the annual increase in sales of new small boats in the years
1982 to 1987.
(C) Sales of new small boats have increased annually five and ten percent in the years
1982 to 1987.
(D) Annually an increase of five to ten percent has occurred between 1982 and 1987 in
the sales of new small boats.
(E) Occurring from 1982 to 1987 was an annual increase of five and ten percent in the
sales of new small boats.
204. In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their
steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to
provide hybrid vigor.
(A) in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics
(B) in part for the acquisition of certain characteristics in their steers
(C) partly because of their steers acquiring certain characteristics
(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers
205. The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the
air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain
stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing
waves."
(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving
rapidly, are
(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly
moving air, are
(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving
rapidly, is
(D) stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is
206. Like Auden. the language of James Merrill is chatty, arch, and conversational--given to
complex syntactic flights as well as to prosaic free-verse strolls.
(A) Like Auden, the language of James Merrill
(B) Like Auden, James Merrill's language
(C) Like Auden's, James Merrill's language
(D) As with Auden, James Merrill's language
(E) As is Auden's the language of James Merrill
207. In the textbook publishing business, the second quarter is historically weak, because
revenues are low and marketing expenses are high as companies prepare for the coming
school year.
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(A) low and marketing expenses are high as companies prepare
(B) low and their marketing expenses are high as they prepare
(C) low with higher marketing expenses in preparation
(D) low, while marketing expenses are higher to prepare
(E) low, while their marketing expenses are higher in preparation
208. Teratomas are unusual forms of cancer because they are composed of tissues such as
tooth and bone not normally found in the organ in which the tumor appears.
(A) because they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone
(B) because they are composed of tissues like tooth and bone that are
(C) because they are composed of tissues, like tooth and bone, tissues
(D) in that their composition, tissues such as tooth and bone, is
(E) in that they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone, tissues
209. The Senate approved immigration legislation that would grant permanent residency to
millions of aliens currently residing here and if employers hired illegal aliens they would
be penalized.
(A) if employers hired illegal aliens they would be penalized
(B) hiring illegal aliens would be a penalty for employers
(C) penalize employers who hire illegal aliens
(D) penalizing employers hiring illegal aliens
(E) employers to be penalized for hiring illegal aliens
210. Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism
on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike
tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for
more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.
(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending
211. The period when the great painted caves at Lascaux and Altamira were occupied by
Upper Paleolithic people has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much
more difficult to determine are the reason for their decoration, the use to which primitive
people put the caves, and the meaning of the magnificently depicted animals.
(A) has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to
determine are
(B) has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to
determine is
(C) have been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to
determine is
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(D) have been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to
determine are
(E) are established by carbon-14 dating, but that which is much more difficult to
determine is
212. The Baldrick Manufacturing Company has for several years followed a policy aimed at
decreasing operating costs and improving the efficiency of its distribution system.
(A) aimed at decreasing operating costs and improving
(B) aimed at the decreasing of operating costs and to improve
(C) aiming at the decreasing of operating costs and improving
(D) the aim of which is the decreasing of operating costs and improving
(E) with the aim to decrease operating costs and to improve
213. The Federalist papers, a strong defense of the United States Constitution and important
as a body of work in political science as well represents the handiwork of three different
authors.
(A) and important as a body of work in political science as well, represents
(B) as well as an important body of work in political science, represent
(C) and also a body of work of importance in political science is representing
(D) an important body of work in political science and has been representative of
(E) and as political science an important body of work too, represent
214. Although the term "psychopath" is popularly applied to an especially brutal criminal, in
psychology it is someone who is apparently incapable of feeling compassion or the
pangs of conscience.
(A) it is someone who is
(B) it is a person
(C) they are people who are
(D) it refers to someone who is
(E) it is in reference to people
215. Parliament did not accord full refugee benefits to twelve of the recent immigrants because
it believed that to do it rewards them for entering the country illegally.
(A) to do it rewards
(B) doing it rewards
(C) to do this would reward
(D) doing so would reward
(E) to do it would reward
216. Many policy experts say that shifting a portion of health-benefit costs back to the workers
helps to control the employer's costs, but also helps to limit medical spending by making
patients more careful consumers.
(A) helps to control the employer's costs, but also helps
(B) helps the control of the employer's costs, and also
(C) not only helps to control the employer's costs, but also helps
58
(D) helps to control not only the employer's costs, but
(E) not only helps to control the employer's costs, and also helps
217. The plot of The Bostonians centers on the rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active
feminist, with her charming and cynical cousin. Basil Ransom, when they find themselves
drawn to the same radiant young woman whose talent for public speaking has won her an
ardent following.
(A) rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with her charming and cynical
cousin, Basil Ransom
(B) rivals Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, against her charming and cynical cousin,
Basil Ransom
(C) rivalry that develops between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, and Basil
Ransom, her charming and cynical cousin
(D) developing rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with Basil Ransom,
her charming and cynical cousin
(E) active feminist. Olive Chancellor, and the rivalry with her charming and cynical
cousin Basil Ransom
218. Despite protests from some waste-disposal companies, state health officials have
ordered the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that
the results be published.
(A) the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches to be measured and that the
results be
(B) that seawater at popular beaches should be measured for their levels of bacteria,
with the results being
(C) the measure of levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches and the results to
be
(D) seawater measured at popular beaches for levels of bacteria, with their results
(E) that the levels of bacteria in seawater at popular beaches be measured and the
results
219. While larger banks can afford to maintain their own data-processing operations, many
smaller regional and community banks are finding that the cost associated with upgrading
data-processing equipment and with the development and maintenance of new products
and technical staff are prohibitive.
(A) cost associated with
(B) costs associated with
(C) costs arising from
(D) cost of
(E) costs of
220. For almost a hundred years after having its beginning in 1788, England exiled some
160,000 criminals to Australia.
(A) For almost a hundred years after having its beginning in 1788,
59
(B) Beginning in 1788 for a period of a hundred years,
(C) Beginning a period of almost a hundred years, in 1788
(D) During a hundred years, a period beginning in 1788,
(E) Over a period of a hundred years beginning in 1788,
221. Eating saltwater fish may significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for
sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis and asthma, according to three research studies
published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
(A) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for
(B) be significant in reducing the risk of heart attacks and aid for
(C) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and aid
(D) cause a significant reduction in the risk of heart attacks and aid to
(E) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks as well as aiding
222. By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad
discretionary powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of
intelligence information.
(A) enabling it to withhold from the public
(B) for it to withhold from the public
(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of
(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure
(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of
223. As business grows more complex, students majoring in specialized areas like those of
finance and marketing have been becoming increasingly successful in the job market.
(A) majoring in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been
becoming increasingly
(B) who major in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are becoming more
and more
(C) who majored in specialized areas such as those of finance and marketing are being
increasingly
(D) who major in specialized areas like those of finance and marketing have been
becoming more and more
(E) having majored in such specialized areas as finance and marketing are being
increasingly
224. Inuits of the Bering Sea were in isolation from contact with Europeans longer than Aleuts
or Inuits of the North Pacific and northern Alaska.
(A) in isolation from contact with Europeans longer than
(B) isolated from contact with Europeans longer than
(C) in isolation from contact with Europeans longer than were
(D) isolated from contact with Europeans longer than were
(E) in isolation and without contacts with Europeans longer than
60
225. Minnesota is the only one of the contiguous forty-eight states that still has a sizable wolf
population. and where this predator remains the archenemy of cattle and sheep.
(A) that still has a sizable wolf population, and where
(B) that still has a sizable wolf population, where
(C) that still has a sizable population of wolves, and where
(D) where the population of wolves is still sizable;
(E) where there is still a sizable population of wolves and where
226. Pablo Picasso, the late Spanish painter, credited African art with having had a strong
influence on his work.
(A) with having had
(B) for its having
(C) to have had
(D) for having
(E) in that it had
227. Judicial rules in many states require that the identities of all prosecution witnesses are
made known to defendants so they can attempt to rebut the testimony, but the
Constitution explicitly requires only that the defendant have the opportunity to confront an
accuser in court.
(A) that the identities of all prosecution witnesses are made known to defendants so
they can attempt to rebut
(B) that the identities of all prosecution witnesses be made known to defendants so that
they can attempt to rebut
(C) that the defendants should know the identities of all prosecution witnesses so they
can attempt a rebuttal of
(D) the identities of all prosecution witnesses should be made known to defendants so
they can attempt rebutting
(E) making known to defendants the identities of all prosecution witnesses so that they
can attempt to rebut
228. Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the
universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.
(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are
229. The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the
film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film
industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they
liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.
(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue
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(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue
(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue
230. In reference to the current hostility toward smoking. smokers frequently expressed
anxiety that their prospects for being hired and promoted are being stunted by their habit.
(A) In reference to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed
anxiety that
(B) Referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently expressed
anxiety about
(C) When referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently express
anxiety about
(D) With reference to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently
expressed anxiety about
(E) Referring to the current hostility toward smoking, smokers frequently express
anxiety that
231. Ms. Chambers is among the forecasters who predict that the rate of addition to arable
lands will drop while those of loss rise.
(A) those of loss rise
(B) it rises for loss
(C) those of losses rise
(D) the rate of loss rises
(E) there are rises for the rate of loss
232. Unlike auto insurance, the frequency of claims does not affect the premiums for personal
property coverage, but if the insurance company is able to prove excessive loss due to
owner negligence, it may decline to renew the policy.
(A) Unlike auto insurance, the frequency of claims does not affect the premiums for
personal property coverage
(B) Unlike with auto insurance, the frequency of claims do not affect the premiums for
personal property coverage
(C) Unlike the frequency of claims for auto insurance, the premiums for personal property
coverage are not affected by the frequency of claims
(D) Unlike the premiums for auto insurance, the premiums for personal property
coverage are not affected by the frequency of claims
(E) Unlike with the premiums for auto insurance, the premiums for personal property
coverage is not affected by the frequency of claims
233. Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle
have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
production efficiency in various industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
62
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising
234. The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to
0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength--0.1
millimeters--is too long to be registered by the eye.
(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength--0.1 millimeters--is
too long to be registered by the eye
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation--0.1 millimeters--is top long to be
registered by the eye making it invisible
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength--0.1 millimeters--is
too long for the eye to register it
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too
long for the eye to register and thus invisible
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for
the eye to register, thus making it invisible
235. Spanning more than fifty years, Friedrich Miiller began his career in an unpromising
apprenticeship as a Sanskrit scholar and culminated in virtually every honor that
European governments and learned societies could bestow.
(A) Miiller began his career in an unpromising apprenticeship as
(B) Miiller's career began in an unpromising apprenticeship as
(C) Miiller's career began with the unpromising apprenticeship of being
(D) Miiller had begun his career with the unpromising apprenticeship of being
(E) the career of Miiller has begun with an unpromising apprenticeship of
236. The Coast Guard is conducting tests to see whether pigeons can be trained to help find
survivors of wrecks at sea.
(A) to see whether pigeons can be trained to help find
(B) to see whether pigeons can be trained as help to find
(C) to see if pigeons can be trained for helping to find
(D) that see if pigeons are able to be trained in helping to find
(E) that see whether pigeons are able to be trained for help in finding
237. It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of
planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at
close range.
(A) may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
(B) may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
(C) are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
(D) are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
(E) are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other
63
238. According to a recent study by Rutgers University, the number of women in state
legislatures has grown in every election since 1968.
(A) the number of women in state legislatures has grown
(B) the number of women who are in state legislatures have grown
(C) there has been growth in the number of women in state legislatures
(D) a growing number of women have been in state legislatures
(E) women have been growing in number in state legislatures
239. Organized in 1966 by the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Breeding Bird Survey uses
annual roadside counts along established routes for monitoring of population changes of
as many as. or of more than 250 bird species, including 180 songbirds.
(A) for monitoring of population changes of as many as, or of
(B) to monitor population changes of as many, or
(C) to monitor changes in the populations of
(D) that monitors population changes of
(E) that monitors changes in populations of as many as, or
240. What brought the automobile company back from the verge of bankruptcy shortly after
the Second World War was a special, governmentally sanctioned price increase allowed
during a period of wage and price controls.
(A) What brought
(B) The thing that brought
(C) That which brought
(D) Bringing
(E) What has brought
241. As well as heat and light, the Sun is the source of a continuous stream of atomic particles
known as the solar wind.
(A) As well as heat and light, the Sun is the source of a continuous stream
(B) Besides heat and light, also the Sun is the source of a continuous stream
(C) Besides heat and light, the Sun is also the source of a continuous streaming
(D) The Sun is the source not only of heat and light, but also of a continuous stream
(E) The Sun is the source of not only heat and light but, as well, of a continuous
streaming
242. Even their most ardent champions concede that no less than a technical or scientific
breakthrough is necessary before solar cells can meet the goal of providing one percent
of the nation's energy needs.
(A) that no less than a technical or scientific breakthrough is necessary
(B) that nothing other than a technical or scientific breakthrough is needed
(C) that a technical or scientific breakthrough is necessary
(D) the necessity for an occurrence of a technical or scientific breakthrough
(E) the necessity for a technical or scientific breakthrough occurring
64
243. Some scientists have been critical of the laboratory tests conducted by the Federal Drug
Administration on the grounds that the amounts of suspected carcinogens fed to animals
far exceeds those that humans could consume.
(A) far exceeds those that humans could consume
(B) exceeds by far those humans can consume
(C) far exceeds those humans are able to consume
(D) exceed by far those able to be consumed by humans
(E) far exceed those that humans could consume
244. Like their male counterparts, women scientists are above average in terms of intelligence
and creativity, but unlike men of science, their female counterparts have had to work
against the grain of occupational stereotyping to enter a "man's world."
(A) their female counterparts have had to work
(B) their problem is working
(C) one thing they have had to do is work
(D) the handicap women of science have had is to work
(E) women of science have had to work
245. Unlike Schoenberg's twelve-tone system that dominated the music of the postwar period,
Bartok founded no school and left behind only a handful of disciples.
(A) Schoenberg's twelve-tone system that dominated
(B) Schoenberg and his twelve-tone system which dominated
(C) Schoenberg, whose twelve-tone system dominated
(D) the twelve-tone system of Schoenberg that has dominated
(E) Schoenberg and the twelve-tone system, dominating
246. Joachim Raff and Giacomo Meyerbeer are examples of the kind of composer who
receives popular acclaim while living, often goes into decline after death, and never
regains popularity again.
(A) often goes into decline after death, and never regains popularity again
(B) whose reputation declines after death and never regains its status again
(C) but whose reputation declines after death and never regains its former status
(D) who declines in reputation after death and who never regained popularity again
(E) then has declined in reputation after death and never regained popularity
247. Faced with an estimated $2 billion budget gap, the city's mayor proposed a nearly 17
percent reduction in the amount allocated the previous year to maintain the city's major
cultural institutions and to subsidize hundreds of local arts groups.
(A) proposed a nearly 17 percent reduction in the amount allocated the previous year to
maintain the city's major cultural institutions and to subsidize
(B) proposed a reduction from the previous year of nearly 17 percent in the amount it
was allocating to maintain the city's major cultural institutions and for subsidizing
65
(C) proposed to reduce, by nearly 17 percent, the amount from the previous year that
was allocated for the maintenance of the city's major cultural institutions and to
subsidize
(D) has proposed a reduction from the previous year of nearly 17 percent of the amount
it was allocating for maintaining the city's major cultural institutions, and to subsidize
(E) was proposing that the amount they were allocating be reduced by nearly 17 percent
from the previous year for maintaining the city's major cultural institutions and for the
subsidization
248. By offering lower prices and a menu of personal communications options, such as caller
identification and voice mail, the new telecommunications company has not only captured
customers from other phone companies but also forced them to offer competitive prices.
(A) has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced them
(B) has not only captured customers from other phone companies, but it also forced
them
(C) has not only captured customers from other phone companies but also forced these
companies
(D) not only has captured customers from other phone companies but also these
companies have been forced
(E) not only captured customers from other phone companies, but it also has forced
them
249. Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and
vocal style were influential on generations of bluegrass artists. was also an inspiration to
many musicians, that included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia. whose music differed
significantly from his own.
(A) were influential on generations of bluegrass artists, was also an inspiration to many
musicians, that included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed
significantly from
(B) influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including
Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from
(C) was influential to generations of bluegrass artists, was also inspirational to many
musicians, that included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music was different
significantly in comparison to
(D) was influential to generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians,
who included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, the music of whom differed significantly
when compared to
(E) were an influence on generations of bluegrass artists, was also an inspiration to
many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music was
significantly different from that of
250. The company announced that its profits declined much less in the second quarter than
analysts had expected it to and its business will improve in the second half of the year.
(A) had expected it to and its business will improve
(B) had expected and that its business would improve
(C) expected it would and that it will improve its business
66
(D) expected them to and its business would improve
(E) expected and that it will have improved its business
251. The gyrfalcon, an Arctic bird of prey, has survived a close brush with extinction; its
numbers are now five times greater than when the use of DDT was sharply restricted in
the early 1970's. .
(A) extinction; its numbers are now five times greater than
(B) extinction; its numbers are now five times more than
(C) extinction, their numbers now fivefold what they were
(D) extinction, now with fivefold the numbers they had
(E) extinction, now with numbers five times greater than
252. Three out of every four automobile owners in the United States also own a bicycle.
(A) Three out of every four automobile owners in the United States also own a bicycle.
(B) Out of every four, three automobile owners in the United States also owns a bicycle.
(C) Bicycles are owned by three out of every four owners of automobiles in the United
States.
(D) In the United States, three out of every four automobile owners owns bicycles.
(E) Out of every four owners of automobiles in the United States, bicycles are also
owned by three.
253. Analysts blamed May's sluggish retail sales on unexciting merchandise as well as the
weather, colder and wetter than was usual in some regions. which slowed sales of
barbecue grills and lawn furniture.
(A) colder and wetter than was usual in some regions, which slowed
(B) which was colder and wetter than usual in some regions, slowing
(C) since it was colder and wetter than usually in some regions, which slowed
(D) being colder and wetter than usually in some regions, slowing
(E) having been colder and wetter than was usual in some regions and slowed
254. Balding is much more common among White males than males of other races.
(A) than
(B) than among
(C) than is so of
(D) compared to
(E) in comparison with
255. The bank holds $3 billion in loans that are seriously delinquent or in such trouble that they
do not expect payments when due.
(A) they do not expect payments when
(B) it does not expect payments when it is
(C) it does not expect payments to be made when they are
(D) payments are not to be expected to be paid when
(E) payments are not expected to be paid when they will be
67
256. The nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great
eruption of Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus.
(A) The nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the only eyewitness account of the great
eruption of Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus.
(B) To the historian Tacitus, the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote two letters, being the
only eyewitness accounts of the great eruption of Vesuvius.
(C) The only eyewitness account is in two letters by the nephew of Pliny the Elder
writing to the historian Tacitus an account of the great eruption of Vesuvius.
(D) Writing the only eyewitness account, Pliny the Elder's nephew accounted for the
great eruption of Vesuvius in two letters to the historian Tacitus.
(E) In two letters to the historian Tacitus, the nephew of Pliny the Elder wrote the
only eyewitness account of the great eruption of Vesuvius.
257. The direction in which the Earth and the other solid planets --Mercury, Venus, and Mars --
spins were determined from collisions with giant celestial bodies in the early history of the
Solar System.
(A) spins were determined from
(B) spins were determined because of
(C) spins was determined through
(D) spin was determined by
(E) spin was determined as a result of
258. The British sociologist and activist Barbara Wootton once noted as a humorous example
of income maldistribution that the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade
Zoo was earning annually exactly what she then earned as director of adult education for
London.
(A) that the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo was earning
(B) that the elephant, giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo, had been earning
(C) that there was an elephant giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo, and it
earned
(D) the elephant that gave rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo and was earning
(E) the elephant giving rides to children at the Whipsnade Zoo and that it earned
259. Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34
the number of wild birds successfully raised since transplants from Norway began in
1975.
(A) bringing
(B) and brings
(C) and it brings
(D) and it brought
(E) and brought
68
260. According to some economists, the July decrease in unemployment so that it was the
lowest in two years suggests that the gradual improvement in the job market is continuing.
(A) so that it was the lowest in two years
(B) so that it was the lowest two-year rate
(C) to what would be the lowest in two years
(D) to a two-year low level
(E) to the lowest level in two years
261. Being a United States citizen since 1988 and born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati
Mukherjee has lived in England and Canada, and first came to the United States in 1961
to study at the Iowa Writers' Workshop.
(A) Being a United States citizen since 1988 and born in Calcutta in 1940, author
Bharati Mukherjee has
(B) Having been a United States citizen since 1988, she was born in Calcutta in 1940;
author Bharati Mukherjee
(C) Born in Calcutta in 1940, author Bharati Mukherjee became a United States citizen
in 1988; she has
(D) Being born in Calcutta in 1940 and having been a United States citizen since 1988,
author Bharati Mukherjee
(E) Having been born in Calcutta in 1940 and being a United States citizen since
1988, author Bharati Mukherjee
262. Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day 1992.
Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial
intelligence.
(A) Initiated five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on Columbus Day
1992, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for
extraterrestrial intelligence.
(B) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New
World, a $100 million investment in the search for -extraterrestrial intelligence was
pledged by Project SETI.
(C) Initiated on Columbus Day 1992, five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New
World, Project SETI pledged a $100 million investment in the search for
extraterrestrial intelligence.
(D) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the .
initiation of Project SETI five centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World on
Columbus Day 1992.
(E) Pledging a $100 million investment in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence five
centuries after Europeans arrived in the New World, on Columbus Day 1992, the
initiation of Project SETI took place.
263. In A.D. 391. resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at
Alexandria, later generations lost all but the lliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most
of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.
69
(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the
ancient world,
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient
world,
(E) Alexandria's largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was
264. Scientists believe that unlike the males of most species of moth, the male whistling moths
of Nambung, Australia, call female moths to them by the use of acoustical signals, but
not olfactory ones, and they attract their mates during the day, rather than at night.
(A) by the use of acoustical signals, but not olfactory ones, and they attract
(B) by the use of acoustical signals instead of using olfactory ones, and attracting
(C) by using acoustical signals, not using olfactory ones, and by attracting
(D) using acoustical signals, rather than olfactory ones, and attract
(E) using acoustical signals, but not olfactory ones, and attracting
265. Thomas Eakins' powerful style and his choices of subject--the advances in modern
surgery, the discipline of sport, the strains of individuals in tension with society or even
with themselves--was as disturbing to his own time as it is compelling for ours.
(A) was as disturbing to his own time as it is
(B) were as disturbing to his own time as they are
(C) has been as disturbing in his own time as they are
(D) had been as disturbing in his own time as it was
(E) have been as disturbing in his own time as
266. In a recent poll, 86 percent of the public favored a Clean Air Act as strong or stronger
than the present act.
(A) a Clean Air Act as strong or stronger than
(B) a Clean Air Act that is stronger, or at least so strong as,
(C) at least as strong a Clean Air Act as is
(D) a Clean Air Act as strong or stronger than is
(E) a Clean Air Act at least as strong as
267. Like Rousseau. Tolstoi rebelled against the unnatural complexity of human relations in
modern society.
(A) Like Rousseau, Tolstoi rebelled
(B) Like Rousseau, Tolstoi's rebellion was
(C) As Rousseau, Tolstoi rebelled
(D) As did Rousseau, Tolstoi's rebellion was
(E) Tolstoi's rebellion, as Rousseau's, was
70
268. Ranked as one of the most important of Europe's young playwrights, Franz Xaver Kroetz
has written forty plays; his works--translated into over thirty languages--are produced
more often than any contemporary German dramatist.
(A) than any
(B) than any other
(C) than are any
(D) than those of any other
(E) as are those of any



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